• Availability and Cost of Pharmacist-Provided Immunizations at Community Pharmacies in Tucson, Arizona

      Jackowski, Rebekah; McKinley, Brian; Oh, Seung; Zucarelli, David; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the availability of immunizations in community pharmacies and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Methods: Twelve community pharmacies in the Tucson area were examined and one pharmacist in each store was asked to complete a questionnaire. This questionnaire aimed to determine individual immunizations offered at each pharmacy and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Main Results: Differences in the availability and cost of immunizations were compiled for each category of community pharmacy. The categories included Supermarket/grocery store, chain, Mass merchant/big box, and independent pharmacy. Seven of the twelve (58%) pharmacies included in the analysis participated in pharmacist-based immunizations. Three out of the four (75%) supermarket based pharmacies, both chain pharmacies, and two of the four (50%) mass merchant pharmacies, provided immunizations. Neither of the independent pharmacies included in the analysis provided immunizations. The pharmacies that did not currently provide immunizations, none had plans in the future to provide immunizations. There were no other non-prescription immunizations provided at the pharmacies in the study. All seven pharmacies that provided immunization services stated they would accept insurance and only one of the chain pharmacies had a walk in clinic. Conclusion: Overall this study demonstrated that there are differences associated with cost and availability of immunization services offered between pharmacies. Further research is needed to determine what hinders community pharmacy from offering immunization services and how to develop a form of commonality between all immunizations offered.