• Exploring the Impact of Pharmaceutical Care Services on Smoking Cessation and Patient Health in a Community Setting

      Herrier, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the usefulness of expanded pharmaceutical care services and pharmacist involvement in smoking cessation for patients in a community setting, to identify demographical parameters for the population which might benefit the most from pharmacist intervention, and to examine the cost benefit of such intervention. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was conducted through a MEDLINE search for all available literature regarding the efficacy of pharmacists in a community setting and smoking cessation outcomes. The results from these studies were then analyzed in order to identify demographic factors which may be associated with higher rates of positive outcome, and the potential cost benefit of such intervention. Information examined from the various articles included: type of study, method of data anaylsis, study/intervention location, patient age, sex, race, other comorbid conditions, and success rates including p values/odds ratios when stated. Results: After the original search, 63 publications were found using MEDLINE, including 12 systematic reviews and 3 clinical trials. After filtering, a total of 28 articles were analzyed. No correlations between demographic factors and successful smoking abstinence were found. All publications, save one, found a positive correlation between higher levels of intervention and increased smoking abstinence rates. Cost effectiveness varied depending on which method of NRT was utilized, ranging from $720 to $2360 per QALY saved. Several national health organizations have published guidelines stating the role of the pharmacist as essential in smoking cessation. Conclusions: Pharmacists have begun to play an essential role in smoking cessation, as evidenced by many successful ventures that have taken place to date. Still, there is vast potential for expansion of pharmaceutical care services in this area.