• A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Quality Improvement Education in Colleges of Pharmacy

      Warholak, Terri; Cooley, Janet; Montoya, Amber; Walsh, Angela; Warholak, Terri; Cooley, Janet; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Objectives: To analyze the state of quality improvement (QI) education across ACPE-accredited pharmacy schools in the United States. Methods: Stage one of data collection consisted of an inspection of each pharmacy school website to reveal the presence of published QI curriculum or other related content. In the second stage, an e-mail questionnaire was sent to one representative of each of the 129 accredited schools in the U.S. who was interested in or who teaches QI at his/her school. Respondents could complete the questionnaire via: 1) electronic; 2) paper; or 3) phone. Later, the questionnaire was shortened and a raffle was initiated to increase response rate. The survey instrument contained both multiple choice and open-ended items. Results: Sixty responses were returned from the 129 accredited schools (47% response rate). The least-covered QI topics in respondents’ QI curricula were: Quality dashboards and sentinel systems (30%); Six-sigma, or other QI methodologies (45%); Measures of safety and quality (57%); Medicare Star measures (a national measurement program) and payment incentives (58%); and How to implement changes to improve quality (60%). More private schools covered Adverse Drug Events than public schools (p=0.039). Requiring a specific QI class was more likely in private schools (p=0.003) while requiring a QI project was more often reported by public schools (p=0.014). Conclusions: To the investigators’ knowledge, this is the first national study to map QI education in U.S. pharmacy schools. These results will inform pharmacy and other health-related professional programs in the integration of QI concepts into their curriculum.