• An evaluation of the accuracy of community-based automated blood pressure machines

      Herrier, Richard; Vogel, Elisa; Bowen, Shannon; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of automated blood pressure machines located within community-based pharmacies. METHODS: A descriptive, prospective study was performed comparing blood pressure readings obtained from community-based automated blood pressure machines to readings from a mercury manometer for 2 different arm sizes. Mercury manometer readings were obtained using the standardized technique and a standard cuff recommended by the American Heart Association RESULTS: For the subject with the small arm size, the automated blood pressure machines reported systolic pressure readings that were, on average, 16.1 mmHg higher than those obtained manually by the researcher. The mean systolic and pressure readings for the subject with the medium arm size were not significantly different between the automated machine and manual manometer readings, and the diastolic pressure readings were modestly different. CONCLUSIONS: We found that automated blood pressure machines located within a sample of representative community pharmacies were neither accurate nor reliable. The accuracy of the readings are especially inaccurate for subjects with a smaller than average arm size.
    • The Level of Accuracy in Selected Episodes of the First, Fourth, and Sixth Season of the Medical Television Drama, House M.D.

      Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; Warholak, Terri; Morris, Stasha; Kim, Hanna; Benson, Jackie; Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; Warholak, Terri; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Objectives: To assess the accuracy of the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatments presented in the first 12 episodes of season one, the last 4 episodes of season four, and the last 7 episodes of season six of the television show, House, MD Methods: A descriptive retrospective evaluation of the accuracy of mentioned episodes and seasons of the television series House, MD was performed. The accuracy of the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatment in each episode was rated on a score of 1 to 4. A score of 1 represented information that was correct and average/and or usual, 2 and 3 indicated less accuracy, and 4 represented information that was not correct. Each researcher individually scored the episodes, and a final accuracy score was determined by consensus of the three reviewers. The results for seasons 4 and 6 were combined with episodes previously evaluated in other students’ projects. Results: The ANOVA results showed no statistically significant differences among the variables in Season 1, however, the treatment was the most accurate. In both season 4 and 6, the ANOVA test did demonstrate a statistically significant difference with the treatment group being most accurate. Conclusions: For season 1, there were no differences in accuracy of the treatments and diagnoses when compared to the signs and symptoms of each episode, however, for season 4 and 6, the treatments were more accurate than the presenting signs and symptoms and the diagnoses.
    • The Level of Accuracy in the Fourth Season of the Medical Television Drama, House M.D.

      Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; Desamero, Xiera; Do, Hieu; Liu, Bo; Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of accuracy in terms of medical information presented in the popular television show, House, MD. This is part of a larger ongoing study, and evaluates only the first 11 episodes of season four. METHODS: This study was a descriptive, retrospective assessment of the first 11 episodes in the fourth season of the medical television drama, House, MD. The signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatment for one major disease portrayed in each episode were recorded and compared to authoritative medical sources. Based on the medical resource material used, an accuracy score for each of the three above-mentioned variables in each episode was assigned. Three researchers evaluated these ratings individually. A collaborative rating was determined for all three variables for all eleven episodes. RESULTS: The average accuracy scores for presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatments were 2.36, 1.82, and 1.91, respectively. The average accuracy score across the three variables resulted in a rating of 2.03. Episode one was excluded from the final analysis. The one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD test and the Kruskal Wallis test all found no significant difference among the data. Therefore, the null hypothesis was not excluded in this analysis. CONCLUSION: The presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatments shown in the eleven episodes evaluated were not significantly different in terms of level of accuracy. The average accuracy score of the eleven episodes indicated that the information presented was correct but somewhat unusual.
    • The Level of Accuracy in the Sixth Season of the Medical Television Show, House M.D.

      Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; Kim, Sunny; Nguyen, Grace NgocThuy; Barraclough, Kelly; Apgar, David; Armstrong, Edward; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of accuracy of medical information presented in the sixth season of the popular prime time medical drama, House M.D. Methods: The study was a descriptive, retrospective assessment of twelve episodes in the sixth season of the medical television show, House M.D. Three parameters were compared to reliable medical sources: signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatment for the one primary medical problem portrayed in each episode. Three researchers reviewed each episode independently and rated the accuracy of each parameter. The accuracy of each dependent variable was rated on a scale of one to four (most to least accurate, respectively). After discussion, a consensus rating was determined for all three variables for all twelve episodes. Main Results: The average accuracy scores for the signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatments were 2.08, 2.58 (ie.,least accurate), and 1.5 (ie., most accurate), respectively. The average accuracy score across the three parameters was 2.06 (correct but somewhat unusual). The one-way ANOVA analysis on the variables revealed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with a p value of 0.003. The Tukey HSD test confirmed the statistically significant difference between diagnostic procedures and treatment (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The treatments portrayed in twelve episodes of season six were judged more accurate than signs and symptoms and diagnostic procedures. The average accuracy score of the three groups determined that the medical information presented in the episodes seemed to be correct but somewhat unusual.
    • The Level of Accuracy in the Sixth Season of the Medical Television Show, House M.D.

      Apgar, David; Barraclough, Jacqueline; Nguyen, NgocThuy-Grace; Apgar, David; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of accuracy of medical information presented in the sixth season of the popular prime time medical drama, House M.D. Methods: The study was a descriptive, retrospective assessment of twelve episodes in the sixth season of the medical television show, House M.D. Three parameters were compared to reliable medical sources: signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatment for the one primary medical problem portrayed in each episode. Three researchers reviewed each episode independently and rated the accuracy of each parameter. The accuracy of each dependent variable was rated on a scale of one to four (most to least accurate, respectively). After discussion, a consensus rating was determined for all three variables for all twelve episodes. Main Results: The average accuracy scores for the signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and medical treatments were 2.08, 2.58 (ie.,least accurate), and 1.5 (ie., most accurate), respectively. The average accuracy score across the three parameters was 2.06 (correct but somewhat unusual). The one-way ANOVA analysis on the variables revealed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with a p value of 0.003. The Tukey HSD test confirmed the statistically significant difference between diagnostic procedures and treatment (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The treatments portrayed in twelve episodes of season six were judged more accurate than signs and symptoms and diagnostic procedures. The average accuracy score of the three groups determined that the medical information presented in the episodes seemed to be correct but somewhat unusual.