• Comparison of Length of Hospital Stay and Cost of Intravenous and Oral N-acetylcysteine in Acute Acetaminophen Toxicity

      Armstrong, Edward; Moreno, Jazmin; Porras, Misael; Armstrong, Edward; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: To determine the cost of treatment of oral and intravenous n-acetylcysteine (IV NAC) in acute acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity using the length of treatment and length of hospital stay. Methods: A retrospective chart review of Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center electronic records from 2009-2012 and January-June 2013 were evaluated. The following information was collected: age, sex, use oral or intravenous NAC, length of treatment, length of hospital stay (intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU) and use of antiemetic. The mean length of stay (MLOS) was calculated for each group as well as the cost of IV and oral NAC. These means were then compared using t-test for independent groups to test for significance. The average total cost of IV and oral NAC treatment was calculated by using monetary values from primary literature. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the possible effects of an increase or decrease of the final costs by 5 to 10%. Main Results: Patients (≥18 yrs) being treated with IV or oral NAC for acute APAP toxicity (≤8 hours prior to ingestion) were included in this study. A total of 47 patients met the inclusion criteria. Length of hospital stay was shorter in patients receiving IV NAC (42.5% 24-24hr; 37.5% 48-72hr) compared to patients receiving oral NAC (28.6% 48-72hr, 71.4% >72hrs; p<0.001). Total cost of ICU/non-ICU stay in patients receiving IV NAC ($8,720/$3010) was less than patients receiving oral NAC ($12,321/$4703); however, cost of IV NAC-extended (37hrs) in ICU/non-ICU ($13,153/$5535) was greater than oral NAC. The sensitivity analysis performed demonstrated that an increase or a decrease by 5 to 10% in change of cost does not affect our final conclusion. Conclusion: The cost of treatment of IV NAC is lower due to shorter LOS of patients treated with IV NAC (p<0.001). However, when an extended course of treatment is medically necessary for patients on IV NAC then the cost of treatment with IV NAC exceeds the cost of treatment with oral NAC.
    • Consumer Knowledge of Acetaminophen Safety, Dosing, and Identification

      Warholak, Terri; Sands, Shannon; Nielsen, Joel; Warholak, Terri; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate consumers’ knowledge about over the counter (OTC) products containing acetaminophen (APAP).   Methods: Doctor of pharmacy student researchers set up a booth at consenting community pharmacies and invited consumers to participate in a 10-15 minute knowledge assessment. The booth contained a table displaying several OTC medication bottles/packages. Adult participants: a) answered baseline questions verbally about their APAP knowledge and associated risks; b) identified OTC products at the booth that contain APAP; and c) calculated and demonstrated dosing of APAP. The researchers asked follow-up questions and assessed the accuracy of the dosing. Participants received APAP educational brochures upon completion.      Main Results: Eighty percent of subjects reported not knowing what the abbreviation “APAP” means, and almost half of those who said that they knew what it means were incorrect. Very few participants were able to correctly identify the products containing APAP even with the product packaging information, with the percentage of incorrect responses as to whether a product contains APAP or not varying from 4.9% to 31.6%. More than 40% of the pediatric doses were incorrectly dosed for both of the pediatric formulations, even with the majority of subjects being parents. Conclusions: Consumers are not able to identify which over-the-counter products contain APAP even with the product packaging before them, and they do not know what the abbreviation “APAP” means. Better packaging and product ingredient information should be developed, and the abbreviation “APAP” should be avoided. Pediatric APAP products should be re-evaluated regarding safety and dosing.