• Marginal Tax Rates and Innovative Activity in the Biotech Sector

      Skrepnek, Grant; Diaz, Pedro; Skrepnek, Grant; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: To assess the association between marginal tax rates (MTR) and innovative output of biotechnology firms. The MTR plays an important role in firms’ financing choices. Assessment of a firm’s tax status may reveal how firms decide on investment policies that affect R&D. Methods: A retrospective database analysis was used. Subjects included were firms within the biotechnology sector with the Standard Industrial Classification code of 2836 from 1980 - 2011. MTR Data was obtained from the S&P Compustat database, and Patent data was obtained from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Changes in MTR’s on outcomes of patents were analyzed by performing an inferential analysis. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used, specifically utilizing a GEE regression with a negative binomial distributional family with log link, independent correlation structure and robust standard error variance calculation. Patents were regressed by the lagged change in MTR, after interest deductions. Main Results: The lag years 2 and 5 of the MTR change were statistically significant, (p = 0.031) and (p = 0.026) for each model respectively. Every one unit increase in the change of the MTRs was associated with large and significant drops in patents 78.8% (IRR = 0.212), 90.7% (IRR = 0.093), 92.7% (IRR = 0.073) at year 2 lag and 84.8% (IRR = 0.152), 92.6% (IRR = 0.074) at year 5 lag. Conclusion: An increase in the change of the MTR results in significant drops in patenting activity.