• Analysis of Medical Tourism at the Andrade Port of Entry

      Warholak, Terri; Miller, Andrea; Woods, Nicole; Smith, Rebecca; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Specific Aims: To identify which medications and/or medical services are being sought most frequently, the reason for these specific instances of medical tourism, perceived efficacy or satisfaction of these medications and services, and the likelihood of people continuing to receive their healthcare in Mexico. Methods: Utilizing a cross-sectional survey design, 427 participants were recruited to participate in an anonymous electronic 12 question survey at or near the US-Mexico border at the Andrade port of entry. Main Results: Most participants had a high-school diploma or four-year university degree, and the most common income bracket reported was between $25,000-$50,000 annually. Respondents reported traveling from four different countries, and of those from the US, 29 different home states were reported. The average age of participants was 64.5, with a range between 19 and 93. Dental was the most common medical service, and antibiotics were the most common class of medications reported on the survey. The majority of participants stated comparable or better efficacy of Mexican products, and expressed intent to continue to participate in medical tourism. Conclusions: Based on the survey, patients feel as though these medications are just as good as what they would get in the states and will continue to buy them until research proves otherwise. Further research should be done to determine if these medications purchased in Mexico are indeed what they claim to be.
    • Assessing the Factors Involved in Provider Preference and Willingness to Pay for Informational and Screening Services

      Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Rust, Jennifer; Heideman, Kalie; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess rural community members in Cochise County, Arizona, to determine if healthcare screenings and informational sessions are desired by the community members for chronic disease states, and from which healthcare providers the community members prefer to obtain these services. Identify which health professional rural members are most likely to seek for healthcare screening. Identify which health professional rural members are most likely to seek for healthcare informational sessions. Determine if rural community members are willing to pay for healthcare screening and informational sessions. Methods: This descriptive study obtained data through 350 questionnaires distributed during selected Cochise County community events in late 2011. Main Results: 341 surveys were completed. The majority of results favored physicians with 47.7% of the people stating they would very likely attend a health care screening conducted by a physician. 34.5% responded they would very likely attend an informational session conducted by a physician. Of the respondents willing to pay for health screenings, 63.9% would pay $30 or less. 70.9% stated they would not be willing to pay for an informational session. However, the majority of participants, 61.3%, indicated they would utilize pharmacists for OTC questions. Regarding questions about prescription medications, 43.4% would go to pharmacists, and similarly, 44% indicated they use physicians. Conclusions: As seen from the results, pharmacists are underutilized by rural community members; except for OTC questions. Respondents with higher levels of education were also more likely to prefer and attend events held by pharmacists.
    • Comparing Population Characteristics, Healthcare Systems and Pharmacists’ Intervention for Elderly between Brazil and United States

      Lee, Jeanne Kim; Slack, Marion; Morales, Juliana Pinto; Detoni, Kirla Barbosa; Lee, Jeanne Kim; Slack, Marion; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare population characteristics and health care systems between Brazil and United States, learn with each country’s strengths and weaknesses what could be done to improve health delivery and quality of service, as well as to compare the role of the pharmacist in the health organization and the power of the intervention for elderly. Furthermore, there are no published studies that compare these two countries in these related topics, what reinforces the significance of the study. Methods: To compare the Brazilian and American healthcare systems and population characteristics we used specific databases to find the data, such as WHO, CDC, OECD, DataSUS and others. To compare pharmacists’ intervention we analyzed published studies conducted in elderly, for Brazil we did a bibliographic search in Medline/PubMed, Scielo and LILACS, and for U.S. we used a systematic review and meta-analyses by Lee et al. The data was summarized in three tables, one comparing population characteristics, a second comparing the healthcare systems and the third, comparing pharmacists’ roles. Main Results: The population of the United States is about 1.6 times larger than the Brazilian population and with a median age of 36 years against 32.1 years, American population is older. Also, there are more adults aged 65 years or older in U.S. (13.1%) than in Brazil (6.8%). Life expectancy is longer in the U.S. (78.7 against 73.2 years) but there are higher levels of chronic disease among elderly. Much less is spent on health care in Brazil, $990 per capita versus $8362 per capita in U.S. The percent of total health expenditures by each government is about the same, 47% for Brazil and 48% for U.S. According to published data, pharmacists’ activities, practice settings and outcomes measured are more robust in the U.S. Conclusion: Brazil spends much less than the U.S. on health care with small differences in life expectancy and with lower levels of chronic disease. Although United States spends more with healthcare, it does not mean that it has the best system. In the same way, only because Brazil has a public health national coverage, it does not mean that all population needs are met. There is more published data available on American pharmacists and it seems that activities are broader in caring for older adults than in Brazil.