• Assessing Pharmacist’s, Pharmacy Technicians’, and Pharmacy Interns’ Knowledge of Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Immunization Guidelines for Pregnant Women

      Spencer, Jenene; Hatchard, Jared; Houston, Brent; Spencer, Jenene; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacists’, pharmacy technicians’, and pharmacy interns’ knowledge of current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) immunization guidelines for pregnant women. Methods: Questionnaires administered to volunteers during the Arizona Pharmacy Association (AzPA) 2013 Annual Convention and Trade Show collected data showing the volunteers’ level of knowledge about current immunization guidelines; data on professional roles (pharmacist, pharmacy intern, or pharmacy technician), years in practice, current immunization certification status and activity, and practice setting were also collected. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 112 volunteers, including 48 pharmacists, 25 pharmacy technicians, and 39 pharmacy interns. The overall percentage of correct answers from all participants was 33%. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy interns had correct answer percentages of 41%, 16%, and 34%, respectively. Pharmacy practitioners who were state certified to perform immunizations performed statistically significantly better than the non-certified group (44.2% correct versus 33% correct, P=0.012). Practitioners who work at a practice site that provides immunizations were compared with practitioners who do not, with results trending toward statistical significance, but falling just short (45.7% correct versus 36% correct, P=0.054). Conclusion: The general level of knowledge about CDC immunization guidelines appears to be inadequate among the volunteer group of pharmacy practitioners, possibly leading to missed opportunities for needed immunizations.
    • Availability and Cost of Pharmacist-Provided Immunizations at Community Pharmacies in Tucson, Arizona

      Jackowski, Rebekah; McKinley, Brian; Oh, Seung; Zucarelli, David; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the availability of immunizations in community pharmacies and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Methods: Twelve community pharmacies in the Tucson area were examined and one pharmacist in each store was asked to complete a questionnaire. This questionnaire aimed to determine individual immunizations offered at each pharmacy and the out-of-pocket cost for those immunizations. Main Results: Differences in the availability and cost of immunizations were compiled for each category of community pharmacy. The categories included Supermarket/grocery store, chain, Mass merchant/big box, and independent pharmacy. Seven of the twelve (58%) pharmacies included in the analysis participated in pharmacist-based immunizations. Three out of the four (75%) supermarket based pharmacies, both chain pharmacies, and two of the four (50%) mass merchant pharmacies, provided immunizations. Neither of the independent pharmacies included in the analysis provided immunizations. The pharmacies that did not currently provide immunizations, none had plans in the future to provide immunizations. There were no other non-prescription immunizations provided at the pharmacies in the study. All seven pharmacies that provided immunization services stated they would accept insurance and only one of the chain pharmacies had a walk in clinic. Conclusion: Overall this study demonstrated that there are differences associated with cost and availability of immunization services offered between pharmacies. Further research is needed to determine what hinders community pharmacy from offering immunization services and how to develop a form of commonality between all immunizations offered.
    • The Effect of an Immunization Training Program on the Willingness of Pharmacy Students to Receive, Administer, Recommend, and Counsel About Vaccinations: A retrospective, pre-post study

      Spencer, Jenene; Fazel, Maryam; Ivanov, Marina; Rodriguez, Jessica; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Objectives: To determine whether pharmacy students were more willing to receive, administer, recommend and counsel patients about vaccinations after completing an immunization training program Methods: Anonymous and voluntary questionnaires administered on paper during a regularly scheduled class collected ratings of confidence on the willingness of first year pharmacy students to receive, administer, recommend and counsel about vaccinations prior to and after the completion of an immunization training program. Data on gender, age range, status of completion and source of the immunization training program completed was also collected. This study was approved by the University of Arizona Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results: Questionnaires were completed by 110 students at the Tucson and Phoenix campus. Students were equally willing (p=0.235) to receive all vaccinations, even if they were not required to by the UA COP, before and after the immunization training program.There was a statistically significant difference in the willingness to administer (p<0.001), to recommend (p=0.024) and to counsel (p<0.001) about vaccinations after completion of an immunization training program. Conclusions: Completing an immunization training program did not have influence on the willingness of pharmacy students to receive vaccinations. However, the results suggest pharmacy students are more willing to administer, recommend and counsel about vaccinations after the completion of an immunization training program.
    • The Impact of Community and Hospital Pharmacists on Adult Immunization Rates: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Apgar, David; Slack, Marion; Baroy, Justin; Chung, Danny; Frisch, Ryan; Apgar, David; Slack, Marion; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Objectives: To establish the impact pharmacists can have on adult immunization rates by having pharmacists available to provide, administer, and advocate for immunizations. Methods: The following databases were searched from inception to November 2014: NLM PubMed; Ovid/MEDLINE; and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were comparative studies reporting pharmacist intervention and their impact on immunization rates. Of 38 publications originally identified, 15 met inclusion criteria. Variables examined included study characteristics, pharmacist intervention, and immunization rates. Results: Of the 15 studies we identified, only ten studies could be analyzed in the meta-analysis. All studies showed increases in immunization rates with pharmacist involvement, but there was high variance. Pharmacist interventions at hospital sites had the greatest benefit for increasing immunization rates (average odds ratio [OR], 10.64, confidence interval [CI] 95%, 5.25-21.49). Pharmacist intervention at one or two community sites had the second highest impact (OR, 2.81; CI 95%, 2.31-3.41). Studies covering multiple sites (more than two) showed the lowest increase in immunization rates (OR 2.26; CI 95%, 1.81-2.81). Conclusions: Pharmacist’s involvement in advocating and administering immunizations directly increases immunization rates in some patient populations. The greatest increases in immunization rates can be seen when pharmacists advocate for immunizations in the hospital setting.