• Assessing Arizona Pharmacists’ Knowledge of and Confidence with Photosensitizing Drugs

      Spencer, Jenene; Kilgore, Megan; Throckmorton, Hannah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Specific Aims: To assess Arizona pharmacists’ knowledge of and confidence with identifying and counseling about photosensitizing drugs to determine the need for further education in this subject area. Methods: A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was administered in person at the 2018 Arizona Pharmacy Association Annual Convention. Sixty of the 136 Arizona licensed pharmacists in attendance completed the questionnaire consisting of opinion, knowledge, and demographic sections. A passing grade for the knowledge section was defined as eighty percent accuracy. A score of eighty percent was chosen as the minimum passing rate based on conventionally used rules of competence. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to analyze any differences between the pass and fail groups. Main Results: There was no difference between pass and fail groups with regard to age, gender, years practicing, years spent in Arizona, and practice setting (p greater than 0.05) or with regard to their confidence with counseling about photosensitizing drugs (p greater than 0.05). Pharmacists reported feeling “mostly confident” about identifying photosensitizing drugs (n equals 33), with a range of “not at all” (n equals 2) to “very” (n equals 11) confident. Only 19 (32 percent) of the 60 pharmacists who completed the survey passed the knowledge section with a score of eighty percent or greater. Conclusions: Twice as many pharmacists did not achieve a passing score for the knowledge assessment despite most pharmacists reporting they feel “mostly confident” counseling about photosensitizing drugs. These results demonstrate a need for more education either in college curriculums or continuing education regarding photosensitizing drugs and reactions.
    • Assessing Nutrition Knowledge in Future Healthcare Professionals

      Warholak, Terri; Zale, Amanda; Peragine, Johanna; Warholak, Terri; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare basic nutritional knowledge in first year health professional students. Authors hypothesized that nursing students would have more nutritional knowledge since a nutrition prerequisite was required. Methods: In fall 2013 authors’ surveyed 244 subjects at a University, comprising of first-year medicine, pharmacy, and nursing students. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed utilizing a print-based questionnaire containing 3 descriptive and 14 multiple-choice questions (21 total points). Each college’s average score was compared using chi-square analysis. The a priori alpha was 0.05 (Bonferroni correction = 0.016). Results: The overall response rate was 93%; 91%, 97%, and 92% for Medicine, Pharmacy, and Nursing, respectively. Average scores per college were: 6.50±1.76, 5.88±2.00, and 5.72±2.08, respectively. Analyses showed no significant difference between groups (p>0.016). Conclusions: Although no difference in nutritional knowledge was identified between groups, the low scores reflect insufficient knowledge and suggest the need to re-evaluate curricula.
    • Assessing Pharmacist’s, Pharmacy Technicians’, and Pharmacy Interns’ Knowledge of Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Immunization Guidelines for Pregnant Women

      Spencer, Jenene; Hatchard, Jared; Houston, Brent; Spencer, Jenene; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacists’, pharmacy technicians’, and pharmacy interns’ knowledge of current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) immunization guidelines for pregnant women. Methods: Questionnaires administered to volunteers during the Arizona Pharmacy Association (AzPA) 2013 Annual Convention and Trade Show collected data showing the volunteers’ level of knowledge about current immunization guidelines; data on professional roles (pharmacist, pharmacy intern, or pharmacy technician), years in practice, current immunization certification status and activity, and practice setting were also collected. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 112 volunteers, including 48 pharmacists, 25 pharmacy technicians, and 39 pharmacy interns. The overall percentage of correct answers from all participants was 33%. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy interns had correct answer percentages of 41%, 16%, and 34%, respectively. Pharmacy practitioners who were state certified to perform immunizations performed statistically significantly better than the non-certified group (44.2% correct versus 33% correct, P=0.012). Practitioners who work at a practice site that provides immunizations were compared with practitioners who do not, with results trending toward statistical significance, but falling just short (45.7% correct versus 36% correct, P=0.054). Conclusion: The general level of knowledge about CDC immunization guidelines appears to be inadequate among the volunteer group of pharmacy practitioners, possibly leading to missed opportunities for needed immunizations.
    • Assessment of Pharmacists’ and Pharmacy Students’ Confidence and Knowledge of Common Asthma Inhaler Devices

      Phan, Hanna; Spencer, Jenene; Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Luu, Michael; Nguyen, Vy Thuy; Lee, Yvonne; Chandler, Krystal; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Specific Aims: To compare pharmacists’ and pharmacy students’ confidence and knowledge level with educating/counseling adolescents/adults, caregivers, and children on appropriate technique and use of common inhaler devices. To identify possible factors that may influence pharmacists’ and pharmacy students’ knowledge and confidence level with educating/counseling patients/caregivers on appropriate technique and use of common inhaler devices. Methods: A survey study using a questionnaire tool consisting of confidence level and knowledge-based questions was distributed to first through fourth year pharmacy students as well as pharmacists registered through the Arizona Pharmacy Association. Main Results: Pharmacists were more confident and knowledgeable with their ability to educate on appropriate inhaler device technique compared to pharmacy students. Both the pharmacist group and pharmacy student group reported health fairs and coursework highest as contributing factors to their knowledge. In general, pharmacists and students were more comfortable with their knowledge of inhaler devices that are more commonly prescribed. Conclusion: Confidence and knowledge level with their ability to educate on appropriate inhaler device technique in all devices and demographics of patients were higher in the pharmacist group than the pharmacy student group.
    • Attitudes and Knowledge of Medical Students Regarding the Role of Pharmacists

      Jackowski, Rebekah; Klein, Amanda S.; Jackowski, Rebekah; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Specific Aims: To determine the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team and how these views change after attending an inter-professional workshop with other University of Arizona healthcare students. Methods: Questionnaires administered during a regularly scheduled class collected rating of teamwork and collaboration, roles for pharmacists in health care settings, and medical student’s expectations of the pharmacist when they are practicing physicians. Previous inter-professional workshop experience, negative experience with a pharmacist, age and sex was also collected. Main Results: Medical students’ attitudes regarding the roles of pharmacist in health care settings became more positive after attending the IPE workshop compared to their attitudes before attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 7.671, p-value = 0.005) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 6.304, p-value = 0.012). Medical students expected pharmacists to be more capable and had higher expectations for them after attending the IPE workshop (X2 = 17.393, p-value = <0.001) and was maintained 1 year after the workshop (X2 = 5.955, p-value = 0.015). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the inter-professional workshop is successful in changing the attitudes of medical students towards pharmacists and the roles they play on the healthcare team. The medical students maintained this change in attitude one year after the inter-professional workshop.
    • Consumer Knowledge of Proper Sunscreen Application

      Cooley, Janet; Go, James; Hreniuc, Brian; Tran, Kevin; Cooley, Janet; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Specific Aims: To determine what the general public understands about sunscreen and to see if specific groups need more targeted marketing and education about sunscreen. Methods: Questionnaires administered to eligible participants that rated the participants’ knowledge of general sun safety, sunscreen application, and FDA labeling on sunscreen products compared to demographic data. Demographic data were collected on age, gender, years resided in Arizona, whether participants has or known anyone with a history of skin cancer and ethnicity. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 62 participants. When comparing skin cancer versus no skin cancer using student’s t-test, there was no significant difference (P=0.09). When comparing gender versus total using student’s t-test, there was no significant difference (P=0.62). When comparing ethnicity versus total using ANOVA, F < Fcritical indicating there was no difference. When comparing age versus total using ANOVA, F < Fcritical indicating there was no difference. When comparing years residing in Arizona versus total using ANOVA, F < Fcritical indicating there was no difference. Conclusion: Consumer knowledge of general sun safety, sunscreen application, and FDA labeling on sunscreen products appears to have little to no difference between each demographic category.
    • Knowledge and Awareness of Hepatitis C Virus Among Second Year Pharmacy Students

      Armstrong, Edward; Holt, Justin; Kocol, Samuel; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Objectives: To determine the change in knowledge regarding the prevalence, risk factors, transmission, and treatment of hepatitis C infections before and after an educational presentation to second year pharmacy students. Methods: Two questionnaires were administered to the study subjects. The pre-test was administered two weeks prior to the educational presentation and the post-test was administered immediately following the presentation. Students were required to attend the lecture, but participation in the pre- and post-tests was voluntary. The questionnaires addressed issues regarding general hepatitis C virus information as well as opinion questions surrounding the subject’s feelings about themselves and the disease state. Results: The mean number of correct responses on the post-test was significantly higher than the mean number of correct responses on the pre-test (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between males and females when comparing mean pre-test, post- test, and change between pre- and post-test scores. The data found no association between a student’s perceived risk level for developing hepatitis C and their knowledge about the hepatitis C virus, whether they had received prior hepatitis C testing, or the mean number of correct responses on either the pre-test or post-test. Implications: An educational presentation on hepatitis C is an effective tool to increase the knowledge of pharmacy students concerning the hepatitis C virus and its risks, prevalence, and treatment options.
    • The Knowledge of Drug Interactions by Third Year Pharmacy Students at Two Western Schools of Pharmacy

      Malone, Daniel C.; Moyers, Jennifer; Mrozowski, Martha; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Objective: To determine the degree of knowledge of clinically significant drug-drug interactions by third-year pharmacy students at two schools of pharmacy located in the Western U.S., hereafter referred to as School A and School B. The purpose was also to determine if the degree of knowledge of drug interactions was related to the amount of work experience as well as exposure to drug interaction information in the curriculum of the pharmacy school at which these students are completing their degrees. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be no difference in knowledge of clinically significant drug-drug interactions by pharmacy students at School A and School B. Methods: A two-page questionnaire was distributed to third year pharmacy students at School A and School B. The first page of the questionnaire contained 10 questions on potential drug-drug interactions and asked the students to indicate if an interaction was present and also rank their confidence for the response provided to the interaction question using a scale of 0 (not confident) to 10 (very confident). For each drug-drug pair, there were three response choices: (A) Should not be used together-contraindicated, (B) May be used together with monitoring, and (C) May be used together without monitoring. The second page of the questionnaire requested information regarding demographics such as age, gender, whether or not the students currently work in a pharmacy setting outside of pharmacy school and if they do, which pharmacy setting and for how many years, where the students believe most of their knowledge regarding drug-drug interactions is from, whether the students would like to have more class-time dedicated to drug-drug interactions, and asked the students’ opinion of how important it is for pharmacists to be aware of drug-drug interactions. In order to determine whether or not exposure to drug interaction information during the curriculum affected the degree of knowledge of drug interactions, a survey of the amount of time devoted to drug-drug interactions during pharmacy school was given to a representative from each school. This survey asked whether or not the curriculum at the particular school had a required course that was in whole or part specific to drug-drug interactions, how many hours were devoted to drug-drug interactions in Therapeutics, Pharmacology, Medicinal Chemistry, and other non-elective courses, and asked for an estimated total number of hours devoted to drug-drug interactions during pharmacy school. Results: A total of 182 students completed and returned the questionnaire, 68 from School A and 114 from School B. There was no significant difference regarding the knowledge of DDIs between students at School A versus School B. The average (SD) number of drug interaction questions answered correctly was 54% (±17%) correct and 56% (±15%) correct respectively. There was no significant difference in subject characteristics including mean age, gender, and type of pharmacy-related work experience between the schools. The results of the survey indicated that the majority of students at both schools work in a community setting for a pharmacy- related job (58 students (88%) and 94 students (75%) for Schools A and B, respectively). A regression analysis showed that student confidence in their ability to correctly identify interactions was the only significant predictor of DDI knowledge (p=0.0138). However, there was only a weak correlation found between correctly answered questions and confidence in the ability to answer the question correctly (r = 0.22). The majority of subjects at both schools indicated that more time should be devoted to DDIs and that DDI information is very important. Conclusion: The study found that third year pharmacy students correctly identified approximately 55% of the drug-drug interactions. There was no significant difference in drug-drug interaction knowledge between the two schools surveyed. In addition, there was only a weak correlation between drug interaction knowledge and the student’s in their ability to correctly identify interactions. After controlling for age, gender, and work experience, we found that confidence was the only significant predictor of DDI knowledge. The majority of the students at both schools believe that drug-drug interaction knowledge is very important and that there should be more exposure to drug-drug interaction information throughout their curriculum. Future studies that survey drug-drug interaction knowledge at more schools may be warranted in order to incorporate changes in curriculums that will further develop the knowledge of drug-drug interactions in future pharmacists.
    • Pharmacist Knowledge of Inhaled Insulin

      Armstrong, Edward; Leal, Sandra; Strickland, Claire; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Objectives: Inhaled insulin is indicated for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This project was designed to evaluate the level of pharmacist knowledge concerning inhaled insulin therapy. Methods: An invitation to complete a questionnaire concerning inhaled insulin was sent via email to pharmacists registered in Arizona and preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Respondents completed a 36 item questionnaire, including 25 knowledge questions. To determine overall pharmacist knowledge of inhaled insulin, the questionnaire results were aggregated into a total correct score. Independent t-tests were used to compare mean scores based on status as a preceptor, completion of a residency, attendance of an inhaled insulin training session, and pharmacist-reported level of confidence in counseling on inhaled insulin use. Results: The mean total correct score for 60 pharmacists who completed the questionnaire was 13.6 (SD = 6.7) out of 25. The mean scores for preceptor pharmacists and non-preceptor pharmacists were not statistically different. Only pharmacist-reported level of confidence in counseling patients on the use of inhaled insulin was significantly related to total score. Pharmacists who reported they were either “very confident” or “confident” in counseling patients about inhaled insulin achieved a higher total correct score compared to pharmacists reporting lower levels of confidence ( p = 0.009). Conclusions: This study identified an overall lack of knowledge regarding therapy with inhaled insulin among participating pharmacists. Pharmacists who self-reported that they were confident in providing counseling regarding inhaled insulin were significantly more knowledgeable.