• Retrospective Analysis of Direct Inpatient Charges and Mortality of Leukemia Pediatric Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Candida, or Aspergillus Infections in the United States

      Skrepnek, Grant; Daugherty, Tagg; Skrepnek, Grant; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Specific Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess risk factors that are associated with inpatient charges and mortality rates with methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureu (MRSA), Aspergillus, and Candida in children with leukemia. The hypotheses is MRSA and opportunistic fungal infections are associated with higher inpatient charges and worse outcomes relative to those without. Children with leukemia are especially at risk due to underdeveloped and compromised immune systems. The rational is that identifying the risk factors that affect mortality and inpatient charges of these infections should add to the current knowledge of treating and preventing these infections in immune compromised patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality (AHRQ) KIDS 2009 database. Inclusion criteria was defined as 17 years of age or younger and a ICD-9 code for an active infection with MRSA, Aspergillus, or Candida. Regression analysis's were performed to identify factors that had an impact on mortality, length of stay, and direct patient charges. Main Results: Values that were significant (p≤0.05) for predicting an increase in mortality were Age (year), MRSA, Aspergillus, Candida, and Deyo-Charlson comorbidity scores. Significant predictors of increased Inpatient Charges (p≤0.05) was Age (year), MRSA, Aspergillus, Candida, Female Sex, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity scores, Urban Hospitals, and the Southern Region. Significant predictors of Increased Length of Stay (p≤0.05) MRSA, Aspergillus, Candida, Female Sex, Deyo-Charlson, Urban Hospitals, Teaching Hospitals, and the Southern Region. Conclusion: Although uncommon in leukemia cases involving pediatrics or young adults, statistically significant and large risks of higher mortality, length of stay, and inpatient charges were noted in cases involving MRSA, aspergillus, and candida. Increasing Deyo-Charlson comorbidities scores were also consistently important predictors for poor outcomes in these leukemia patients and, with certain outcomes, increasing age and female sex.