• Self-management of Pain Among Pharmacy Students

      Slack, Marion; Hernandez, Carlos; Slack, Marion; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if pharmacy students are more likely to use pharmacological agents to manage pain and if men and women are equally likely to use pharmacological agents. Methods: Questionnaires were administered after a regularly scheduled class for first, second and third year pharmacy students. Data collected included a pain intensity rating, whether pain was acute or chronic, how the pain was managed (medication, exercise, etc.) and if pain interfered with activities. Results: A total of 218 students (41% men, 71% aged 19-25) participated; 70% reported acute pain, 16%, chronic pain, and 14%, no pain. Pain intensity was greater in the chronic pain group (5.8 ± 1.7) than in the acute pain group (5.0 ± 2.1; p = 0.028). Chronic pain respondents were more likely to use prescription NSAIDs, muscle relaxers, physical therapy, transdermal electrical nerve stimulation, steroid injections and beta blockers (p < 0.02). There were few differences between men and women; women used OTC NSAIDs and acetaminophen at higher rates than men (p < 0.02). Women also used two non-pharmacological strategies (changed position and relaxation) at higher levels than men (p < 0.02). Students with chronic pain reported more pain interference with daily and leisure activities (p < 0.005) and work (p = 0.003) than students in the acute pain group. Conclusions: Different strategies were used for pain management between acute and chronic pain participants, and also between both men and women. Students with chronic pain reported more interference with activities than those with acute pain.