• The Efficacy of Self-Management Programs for Chronic Pain: A Preliminary Review

      Slack, Marion; Azaril, Kim; Billington, Taness; Garlick, Kelsey; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Objectives: To identify studies that have been conducted on pain self-management interventions to describe the strategies used in the treatment of pain Methods: Eligible studies were determined using a study inclusion-screening tool. To be eligible, studies needed to be randomized controlled trials comparing some type of self-management intervention to an alternative or usual care. Once determined to be eligible, selected studies were analyzed by two investigators using a consensus procedure and full article data extraction form which collected data on the study characteristics, patient characteristics, self-management strategies and relevant study outcomes. Results: The chronic pain management strategies from the 14 randomized controlled trials used in this study included: acupuncture, mobile based intervention, yoga, meditation/relaxation techniques, cupping therapy, musical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, physical therapy and self-management therapies. All studies showed a statistically significant reduction in pain from baseline, however, the effect size ranged from very small (0.02) to quite large (2.2). Conclusions: Most studies showed a meaningful reduction in pain, hence, a wide variety of self-management strategies are available for managing pain.
    • Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Pain Reported in Population-Based Surveys: A Systematic Review

      Slack, Marion; Bemis, Lola; Harper, Bonita; Molla-Hosseini, Sima; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the types of management strategies reported by individuals with chronic pain to manage chronic pain, the average number of strategies used, outcomes, and side effects. Methods: To be included in the systematic review, reports of population surveys of adult patients with chronic pain, as defined by the authors, had to be published in English, include chronic pain from any cause, and include information on the treatment strategies used by respondents. Search terms included “pain,” “self-care,” “self management,” “self treatment,” and “adult” and the search strategy included systematic searches of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, searches of reference lists, and citation searches as well as key websites such as the CDC and NIH. Results: A total of 13 study reports were identified. Sample size ranged from 103 to 4839; mean age ranged from 42 to 81 and 51 to 69% female. All reports included information on medications used to manage pain; 6 reported other medical strategies; 9 reported physical strategies; 6 reported psychological strategies; and 11 reported non- medical strategies. Only 4 studies reported some data on the number of strategies used; one study reported 23% used 6 or more medications, another reported 51% used 3 or more strategies. Six studies reported some type of outcome; including inadequate control of pain (40%) or good relief (87%), and 36% as effective in a third study. Few side effects were reported; two studies reported constipation, nausea and vomiting. Conclusions: Population-based surveys of chronic pain have identified a large number of strategies used to manage pain, however they provide little information on the average number of strategies used, the effectiveness of the strategies, or resulting side effects.
    • Strategies Used by Pharmacists for the Self-Management of Acute and Chronic Pain: An On-Line Survey

      Slack, Marion; Lee, Jeannie; Chavez, Ramon; Trinh, Daniel; Vergel de Dios, Daniel; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Objectives: Specific Aim 1: Pharmacist will use pharmacological pain self-management strategies over non- pharmacological strategies. Specific Aim 2: Pharmacist pain self-management strategies will differ based on whether or not the pharmacist has chronic pain. Specific Aim 3: Pharmacist pain self-management strategies will differ across age. Specific Aim 4: Pharmacist pain self-management strategies will differ across gender. Methods: A survey was sent to all pharmacists with an email address registered with the State Board of Pharmacy in a single Southwestern state. The survey asked about characteristics of pain, strategies for managing pain, outcomes, and demographics. The primary outcome was severity of pain after treatment. Results: Responses were received from 417 pharmacists; 219 reported acute, 206 reported chronic pain, and 55 reported no pain. The chronic pain group was more likely to have a disability with poor/fair health status (P<0.006) and to report higher levels of pain before treatment (6.9 versus 5.8). Both groups reported similar relief from all strategies (76% versus 78% ; P equals 0.397), but the chronic pain group reported higher levels of pain after treatment (3.2 versus 2.0), less confidence in pain management, and less satisfaction (P less than 0.004). Conclusions: Age and gender did not affect the use of specific pain management strategies or the amount of pain relief received from all strategies used by participants with either acute or chronic pain. However, participants with chronic pain had higher levels of pain before and after treatment.