• Capitalizing on Opportunities for Reaching Patients: Utilization of Providers in Delivering Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services

      Forbes, Stephanie; Szabados, Kwyn; Harnisch, Alexa; Shoura, Aya; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: The specific aim of the project is the study the impact of connecting with primary care providers of eligible patients to complete MTM services though pharmacist-delivered CMRs. Our primary working hypothesis is that provider engagement though the Provider Outreach Program (POP) will allow more patients to receive MTM services than the standard MTM process. Methods: This study used a descriptive, retrospective design. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of patients enrolled in the Provider Outreach Program. Beneficiaries of the program were the patients with two or more chronic conditions and taking multiple prescription medications eligible to receive MTM services as part of their Medicare Part D or individual prescription coverage. Since this study will be from 21 states and over a period of 4.75 months the estimated sample size was calculated to be roughly 53,000. The independent variable is the Provider Outreach Program (POP). The POP targets patients that the standard MTM process is unable to reach by directly contacting providers to increase the number of patients who benefit from MTM services. Demographics for all study participants consist of Medicare qualifying patients (65 years or older, disability, or end-stage renal disease). Descriptive variables will be participating state, total faxes sent, medication list received, POP CMRs completed, total outbound calls, standard CMRs completed, and reasons for denial of communication. The descriptive variables were analyzed by calculating percentages and totals for continuous variables (total faxes sent, medication lists received, POP CMRs completed, standard CMRs completed, and total outbound calls). Main Results: Of the total 52,170 faxes sent, 9,043 medication lists were received (17.9%) from PCPs. There was a 3.8-fold difference in successful CMR completion rates between the POP (16.4%) and the standard MTM program (4.3%). Conclusions: The POP can be utilized as a method to strengthen the outcomes of the standard process to increase the number of patients who benefit from MTM services.
    • Title of project: Describing and measuring the pharmacists’ involvement in dosing and monitoring vancomycin at Tucson Medical Center, a community teaching hospital

      Bergstrom, Eric; Neopaney, Tek; Kafley, Puspa; Tran, Kelvin; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To measure the amount of time spent by pharmacists on vancomycin dosing and monitoring at Tucson Medical Center (TMC). Methods: This is a descriptive study that used data obtained through a questionnaire and data collection sheets from pharmacists at TMC from September 18 through October 13, 2017. Pharmacists were eligible to participate in the study if they were working in an inpatient pharmacy setting at this community hospital for at least 24 hours a week and more than 6 months. Data were analyzed by using student t-test to compare between groups. Main Results: Through a questionnaire, pharmacists reported spending an average of 13.5 minutes (SD 6.9) and 9.5 minutes (SD 4.3) for new and continuous vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring per encounter, respectively. Data collection over a period of 29 days revealed that pharmacists spent a total of 112.33 hours and an average of 3.85 hours per day on vancomycin TDM. In general, pharmacists spent an average of 10.27 minutes (SD 6.76) per encounter and 30.42 minutes (SD 27.53) per patient. The mean time for new (n=163) versus continuous (n=493) vancomycin TDM was 11.7 minutes (SD 5.6) and 9.8 minutes (SD 7.0), respectively, with statistically significant P values of 0.001. The mean time spent per encounter was statistically significant between groups that used a vancomycin calculator (n=323) [13 minutes (SD 7.9)] versus those that did not use a calculator (n=333) [7.6 minutes (SD 3.9); P = 0.001]. Conclusions: The average time spent per patient by the pharmacist for vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was about half an hour, which supported the prediction for the time spent on vancomycin by pharmacists prior to our study. More time was spent on new-start vancomycin TDM than existing vancomycin drug monitoring. In addition, more time was spent on vancomycin TDM with the use of a calculator.
    • Title of project: Assessing Pharmacy Student’s and Alumni’s Perceived Benefit of 4th Year Professional Development Activities Through an Online Survey

      Cooley, Janet; Little, Amanda; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: Assess the perceived benefit of professional development activities provided to 4th year pharmacy students through a survey of alumni. Subjects: University of Arizona College of Pharmacy alumni from the class of 2013 through 2017. Methods: An email sent to all email addresses that were listed in the listserv invited alumni from the class of 2013 through 2017 to participate in the survey. The survey collected information on which events the alumni attended during their 4th year of pharmacy school and gauged how beneficial the respondents found the events that they participated in. Main Results: The survey was completed by a total of 100 alumni; 20 from the class of 2013 (60% female), 16 from the class of 2014 (75% female), 19 from the class of 2015 (68% female), 20 from the class of 2016 (60% female), and 25 from the class of 2017 (56% female). Respondents reported similar attendance for the 4 th year meetings (P4 meetings) (61.8%), the mock interview session (60%), and the residency/preceptor showcase (60%.) 55% of respondents reported attending career day. The following percentage of respondents strongly agree or agree that they found the events beneficial as described in the survey items: 77.5% for the P4 meetings, 78% for the mock interviews, 58.7% for the residency/preceptor showcase, and 65.1% for career day. Conclusions: The P4 meetings, mock interviews, residency/preceptor showcase and career day appear to have been beneficial for over 50% of the respondents that reported attendance of these events.
    • Increased Awareness: The Role of Education in Influencing Attitudes and Understanding of Nonmedical Prescription Stimulants use in Greek-life Associated Undergraduate Populations

      Cooley, Janet; Djane, David; Venger, Nathan; Hagen, Christopher; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To explore whether educational intervention of university students would improve their knowledge and perceptions of prescription stimulants. Subjects: Students between the ages of 18-22 years old who are current and enrolled members of a Greek Life organization that is recognized by a land-grant university in the Southwest. Methods: Questionnaires administered during a scheduled Greek Life chapter meeting that collected pre-presentation knowledge on general stimulant and prescription stimulant knowledge with a follow-up post-presentation questionnaire; additional data concerning age, ethnicity, and year of study was also collected. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 45 men (mean age = 19.96; SD = 1.31; 62% white). No advancement of knowledge regarding general stimulant and prescription stimulant knowledge was observed from the data analysis (p = 0.55). Conclusions: Verbal educational intervention as a sole monotherapy was not sufficient in changing the knowledge or attitudes regarding stimulants for a small portion of undergraduate students currently enrolled at a land-grant university in the Southwest who are actively involved in recognized Greek Life organizations. More studies with larger sample size need to be performed.
    • Effect of emergent magnetic resonance imaging on alteplase utilization for acute ischemic stroke

      Patanwala, Asad; Munoz, Jonis; Reyes, Dana; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Objectives: The purpose of this project was to assess appropriateness of alteplase (tPA) administration in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at Banner-University Medical Center Tucson (BUMC-T) and identify interruptions in therapy that could have been prevented. Methods: This descriptive quality improvement project evaluated retrospective data from the electronic health records at BUMC-T. Data was collected from patient charts using Epic. The data collection form included items based on demographics, tPA, symptoms and severity, utilization of computerized tomography, MRI, interventional radiology (IR), and complications. Wilcoxon Rank-sum test was used to compare the door-to-needle times if patients did or did not receive an MRI. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the proportion of patients with interruption of infusion with or without emergent MRI (P<0.050). Main Results: Ninety-six patients received tPA for acute ischemic stroke with 13 having an interruption in infusion. Reasons documented were placed into 4 categories: MRI related, blood pressure related, adverse reactions related to tPA, or other. Four of 13 interruptions were related to an emergent MRI. This was not statistically significant (p>0.050). The remainder were not preventable as tPA was discontinued because of an adverse event. Patients that received an MRI received tPA faster than those patients who did not receive an MRI (48 minutes versus 63 minutes, respectively) (P=0.006). Conclusions: Alteplase interruptions did not occur more frequently in patients who received MRI. However, all preventable interruptions were due to MRI. Alteplase administration logistics should be optimized to minimize any preventable interruptions in therapy.
    • Clinical Utilization of Pharmacogenomic Testing in an integrated Behavioral Health Setting

      Leal, Sandra; Scovis, Nicole; Karnes, Jason; Garcia, Alexis; Pourshams, Tina; Moslem, Negeen; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To explore whether pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing would lead to an overall reduction in number of medications and increased clinical efficacy of antidepressant therapy. Method: In this retrospective review, we reviewed the charts of 100 patients in a behavioral health clinic who have been diagnosed with depression and have received a neuro PGx panel to observe and assess the clinical effectiveness of implementing PGx tests. Based on the inclusion criteria 87 patients were qualified and 28 patients were eligible for analysis of pre-PGx and post-PGx Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores. Wilcoxon singed-rank test and paired t-test were used for comparing the PHQ-9 scores, number of medications and PGx recommendations. Main Results: There was a significant difference when comparing PHQ-9 scores pre- and post-PGx testing (W=289, CV=116, P-value 0.001, CI 95%; SD 13.7, Mean 6.2 for pre-PGX; SD 5.9, Mean 8.9 for post-PGx). However, there was no significant difference between the number of medication used pre- and post-PGx for patients that carried variants, considering both Wilcoxon singed-rank test and paired t-test (|W|=286 CV>300, P-value 0.212; T-test P-value 0.211, alpha 0.05). The number of patients advised to use their medications as directed did not change significantly Pre- and post-PGx (nprior=151, npost=163, P-value 0.393, alpha 0.05). The number of patients taking “Use with Caution” medications based on pharmacogenomic results decreased significantly after PGx testing (nprior=70, npost=49, P-value 0.012, alpha 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that pharmacogenomics testing can significantly affect the PHQ-9 scores and therefore increase the clinical efficacy of antidepressant therapy.
    • Evaluation of Community Pharmacists’ Job Satisfaction Related to Professional Responsibilities

      Malone, Daniel; Fung, Kristin; Nichols, Whitney; Singer, Amanda; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To assess overall job satisfaction among community pharmacists and identify factors that improve job satisfaction and ability to perform professional responsibilities. Methods: The subjects of this study were Arizona licensed pharmacists, greater than 25 years old, who were employed with a community chain pharmacy including CVS, Safeway, Walgreens or Walmart. This study used a focus group to ascertain perceptions and satisfactions. Participants completed a questionnaire prior to the focus group that assessed satisfaction with their current employment including workplace, compensation, paid time off, and computer system. Demographic data including gender, age, ethnicity, and years of pharmacy practice were collected. Focus group questions included job satisfaction related to staff support, technology, workflow processes, work/life balance, services provided, company respect, job expectations and roles, and expected longevity in the company. Main Results: A total of 8 persons from four different pharmacy organizations participated in the study. The median age was 31.5 (SD = 9.7) and the median years of practice was 6.5 (SD = 9.7). Overall, all pharmacists reported they were satisfied in their workplace and paid time off, felt that they are adequately compensated for their work, and envisioned themselves with the same company in 10 years. Pharmacists from two organizations stated that their computer systems adequately identified drug interactions whereas pharmacists from the other two organizations disagreed. During the focus group, most pharmacists identified patient interaction as their favorite aspect of their job. Conclusions: Community chain pharmacists job satisfaction was high and similar among the pharmacy organizations represented in the sample.
    • argeting Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Catalytic Domain to Treat Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction

      Chapman, Eli; Machulis, Jason; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims Aim 1: To develop an MLCK assay for a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign. Working hypothesis: MLCK truncation, fusion, and correct bacterial expression host will produce functional MLCK for an HTS campaign. Aim 2: To screen for MLCK inhibitors using a natural product library for chemical diversity. Working hypothesis: Natural products have elaborate scaffolds that might reveal novel mechanisms of inhibition, giving better specificity. Aim 3: To convert hits to leads through biochemical, biophysical, and cellular analyses. Working hypothesis: Initial hits will be confirmed, expanded, and optimized to produce lead compounds. Methods Bacterial cell transformation, plasmid purification, PIPE cloning, small and large scale protein expression, and IMAC were used to purify recombinant MLCK. Purified samples were tested for size using gel electrophoresis. Main Results MLCK is insoluble in a pSpeed vector, and cannot be purified at large concentrations when expressed in a pGEX vector. No p-values or confidence intervals were used. Conclusions MLCK assay development for a HTS campaign cannot be completed due to low protein yield when expressed in bacteria.
    • An Evaluation of Outcomes Related to the Use of a VTE Prophylaxis Assessment Tool in Obstetrical Patients at Northwest Medical Center

      Sullivan, Christopher; Salek, Ferena; Calkins, Linda; Smith, Katherine; Smith, Karen; Blanco, Hayde; Kelly, Melissa; Romero, John; Wilkerson, Aaron; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To evaluate the relationship between standardized venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment, subsequent use of pharmacologic prophylaxis and outcomes related to VTE and bleeding. Subjects: Pregnant women who were admitted to NMC Women’s Center from January 1, 2017 to October 1, 2017 to give birth and who consented to a post-discharge phone call. Methods: An in-house risk assessment instrument was used to measure an individual’s risk of VTE on admission and post-delivery. Six weeks post-discharge, consented eligible patients were contacted via phone to determine VTE occurrence outpatient or inpatient, VTE prophylaxis occurrence, and experienced outpatient adverse drug events (ADE). All data were recorded in a data collection spreadsheet and analyzed. Main Results: A total of 707 women were included in the study. Most patients had a total risk score of zero (antepartum [AP]: 74.4%, postpartum [PP]: 51.9%). Seventeen (2.4%) AP patients and 72 (12.8%) PP patients scored high risk (defined as total score ≥ 4). Of the 17 high risk AP patients, 8 received postpartum prophylaxis. Of the 72 high risk PP patients, 13 received postpartum prophylaxis. There were no reported ADEs associated with any prophylactic drug therapy. One patient experienced a deep vein thrombosis incident in the six weeks postpartum period and zero in the antepartum period. Conclusions: Among the participants who received a VTE risk assessment pre- and postpartum, one participant experienced a VTE during the six week postpartum window. Additionally, there was no notable difference in ADEs in patients receiving pharmacological prophylaxis despite increased use.
    • Evaluation of CD4+ counts after switching to INSTI-based regimen in virologically suppressed, treatment-experienced HIV patients: a retrospective, descriptive study

      Chan, Connie; Ellis, Kristen; Sun, Xia; Phan, Thu; Nguyen, David; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To determine if integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) based regimens initiated in antiretroviral treatment (ART) experienced, virologically suppressed HIV patients would result in favorable immunological function reflected by an increase in CD4 counts. Subjects: HIV-1 positive, age ≥ 18, on stable ART with non-INSTI based regimens and were switched to INSTI-based regimens. Methods: Patients were excluded for HIV RNA > 200 (copies/mL) within one year prior to switch or pregnancy. The primary outcome was the change in post-switch CD4 counts from baseline. A linear mixed effects model was used to define the change in CD4 counts over time. Secondary outcomes included comparison of median CD4 count at baseline and at furthest follow up, incidences of adverse effects, changes in safety profile (SCr, AST, ALT, lipids), and the number of HIV RNA > 200 during post-switch period. Main Results: A total of 53 patients were included: male (75%), white (57%), median age= 53, 74% had HIV ≥ 10 years, 58% were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 45% were on protease inhibitor (PI) based regimens. Median baseline CD4 = 588 cells/mm3 (CD4% = 30.0), and median CD8 = 818.5 (CD8% = 44). Median CD4 at furthest follow up was 622 (CD4% = 31.4), and median CD8 was 743.5 (CD8% = 44.2). The linear mixed effects model showed a statistically significant increase in CD4 count over time after switching to an INSTI-based regimen (P = 0.015). Higher baseline CD4 count was associated with higher CD4 counts later on (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Switching to an INSTI based regimen was associated with an increase in CD4 counts in ART experienced, stabilized individuals living with HIV.
    • A Single Center, Retrospective Chart Review Studying Survival Rates in Patients Treated with IMiDs for Multiple Myeloma

      McBride, Ali; Chung, Jisu; Patel, Toral; Trinh, Christina; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To evaluate the survival rate between dose adjustment group and non-dose adjustment group in patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma taking IMids. Methods: In this retrospective study design, a total of 100 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma who received at least one dose of studied IMids were included. The primary finding was survival rate between the dose adjustment group and the non-adjustment group. The secondary findings include the prevalence of side effects and the length of survival. Chi square test was used to analyze the data collected. Main Results: Of the 100 patient charts reviewed, 37 subjects (37%) were dose adjusted (dose adjustment group) whereas 63 subjects (63%) didn’t require dose adjustment (non-dose adjustment group). The incidence of death in both groups were not statistically different with 4 death in dose adjustment group and 7 deaths in non-adjustment group (p=0.96). The most commonly reported side effects in both groups were bone marrow suppression (24.8%), anemia (15.3%), fatigue (14.6%), and diarrhea (12.4%). Conclusions: The incidence of death in both dose adjusted group and non-dose adjusted group were not statistically different (p=0.96).
    • Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students’ Opinions of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment Exam (PCOA) at one College of Pharmacy

      Warholak, Terri; Zvavamwe, Simbarashe; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: Compare student’s opinions and get an overall understanding of which classes the student’s feel the College of Pharmacy can emphasize to better prepare them in their didactic course work. Subjects: Pharmacy students of the University of Arizona class of 2019 at the Tucson campus in Arizona. Methods: Students who had recently taken the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment Exam (PCOA) at one College of Pharmacy self-assessed their knowledge in each of the core subjects; pharmacology, management, statistics, medicinal chemistry, and clinical pharmacology, covered by the PCOA exam using a questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered during a regularly scheduled class and collected after completion. Data were analyzed using excel spreadsheets and nonparametric procedures for nominal and ordinal level data. Main Results: The response rate was 75%. The average age and Grade Point Average (GPA) of study respondents was 23 (SD= 8.354) and 3.28 (SD=0.9608) respectively. Out of the 5 core areas, medicinal chemistry was rated as the toughest section on the PCOA exam. Furthermore, more than 60% of the students indicated that they struggled with at least 2 classes from the core areas. Overall, many students agreed the level of difficulty on the exam was appropriate, helped identify the topics to review and the review session provided by the school was not adequate to help them excel on the exam. Conclusions The results suggest the PCOA exam helped identify the core classes in the curriculum that each student needs to review. Despite a great portion of the students struggling with at least 2 or more classes, the PCOA can be used as a tool to help both students and faculty members identify weaknesses.
    • Comparison of Vancomycin AUC Calculation Methods in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

      Phan, Hanna; Matthias, Kathryn; Coulter, Josh; Hilde, Casey; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: Determine if there is clinical and statistical significance between using a predictor equation versus a 2S method of vancomycin monitoring in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Evaluate if there is a correlation between vancomycin trough values and AUC0-24/MIC in patients with CF. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study using patient charts using EPIC software provided from Banner-UMC. Demographic and vancomycin pharmacokinetic data was documented from patients with CF being treated for MRSA respiratory infections. Pharmacokinetic data was then used to calculate the AUC0-24/MIC using regular two level kinetics as well as three population-based pharmacokinetic equations to test their validity against regular kinetics. Main Results Conclusions
    • Utilization of Local Anesthetic Medications in Pediatric Patients prior to Venipuncture for Blood Draw or Intravenous Medication Administration

      Brandon, Megan; Crampton, Rachel; Joseph, Caroline; Tellez, Alexandria; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims To increase nursing use of local anesthetics in pediatrics and to identify barriers for not using local anesthetics prior to any venipuncture. Subjects: Registered pediatric nurses working at Diamond Children’s BUMC-T hospital in General Medicine Units. Methods Pre-questionnaires and post questionnaires administered at the end of each shift daily for two weeks on knowledge, preference, practices of the day, years of work experience and any additional comment. A PowerPoint Intervention directed at the nursing staff educating about each of the local anesthetics used prior to venipuncture. Only used the nurses (N=8) that completed both pre and post questionnaires and excluded all other questionnaires. Main Results Out of the 50 possible registered pediatric nurses in the General Medicine Units, only 8 nurses (16%) completed both the pre and post questionnaires. There was an increase in the number of local anesthetic utilized prior to venipuncture from pre-questionnaires to post-questionnaires but it was not statistically significant. P value= 0.1817, CI=1.00 95% Confidence interval (-0.84-2.84). Conclusions Nursing staff did increase use of local anesthetics prior to venipuncture even with an educational intervention but it was not statistically significant. We did identify barriers for not administering local anesthetics prior to venipuncture which included: no time, no order for local anesthetic was available, and contraindicated.
    • Warnings for Drug-Drug Interactions in Consumer Medication Information Provided by Community Pharmacies

      Malone, Daniel; Panich, Jennifer; Gooden, Andrea; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Objective: In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) outlined standards for consumer medication information (CMI) that pharmacies should provide to patients receiving new prescription medications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CMI provided by six pharmacy chains for accuracy and completeness with respect to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Methods: Medication leaflets were obtained from six different community pharmacy chains located in southern Arizona. Three medications chosen: azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and simvastatin. The content of the information in the leaflets was examined and compared to information two drug information sources. The number of and information for DDIs mentioned in the CMI was evaluated. The reading level of each CMI was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid reading level scale. Results: The CMI provided by the six pharmacies appear to be produced by two information vendors, Wolter’s Kluwer or First Databank. This was evident based on the identical wording and reference to these sources. The CMI from First Databank mentioned 5 of the 11 known interactions with the target medications. The CMI that was developed by Wolter’s Kluwer mentioned only 2 of the 11 known DDIs. The average reading grade level for First Databank leaflets was 10.6 (SD=2.87), while the reading level for the CMI from Wolters Kluwer was 5.0. The font size varied from 8 to 12-point font. Conclusions: CMI has limited to no warnings about serious and well-known DDIs. Medication information vendors and community pharmacies should work together to improve CMI to help prevent dangerous DDIs.  
    • Assessment of a Vancomycin Dosing Protocol in Obese Patients

      Frick, Jacob; Apodaca, Paloma; Landwehr, Sara; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To identify the percentage of obese patients who received subtherapeutic doses of vancomycin at a single community medical center using a standardized dosing algorithm. Methods: A single-center, retrospective chart review was performed analyzing data from the records of 100 patients who received an initial vancomycin dose with a trough drawn after 24 hours of the initial dose. Data was collected at a 170-bed community medical center. The facility’s electronic health record (EHR), was used to extract data from patient charts. The first 100 patients that qualified between 01/01/2017 and 06/30/2017 were used for analysis. Main Results: The results of the study demonstrated that 52% of all patients achieved subtherapeutic trough concentrations. A vancomycin dose given within +/- 1 hour of its scheduled time (P = 0.0000094) was found to be associated with attaining a desired trough goal. A 95% confidence interval of 38.46 to 58.22% for non-therapeutic trough levels was calculated via the Adjusted Wald Method. Conclusion: Algorithms for vancomycin dosing may not be reliable tools for the dosing of this medication in obese persons. Individualized dosing in this population remains essential for the optimal treatment of infection in this cohort of patients.
    • A Qualitative Evaluation by Focus Group of Pharmacists on Patient Counselling on Inhaler Technique

      Lee, Jeannie; Tate, Jared; Avila, Sena; Day, Kendall; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims The purpose of this study was to describe the barriers that exist at the pharmacy level in providing appropriate patient education on inhaler technique. Methods A focus group was used for this study, approved by the University of Arizona Institutional Review Board. De-identified demographic information was collected to describe the characteristics of the study participants and their experiences with inhaler education. During the focus group, conducted by student pharmacists, data were collected by note taking and audio recording. Descriptive data about the participants were reported using summary means, and standard deviations. Audio recording and researcher notes were analyzed by content analysis to extract common barriers that limit appropriate patient education on inhaled medication use. Results Ten pharmacists participated in the focus group discussion. The average age of participants was 46 years (SD=11.1, Range=29-61) and the majority were female (80%). The main themes identified centered on patient- and practice-specific factors for instituting patient education on inhaler technique. Conclusions Prioritizing common barriers identified by practicing pharmacists as a focus of pharmacist training and process implementation within pharmacies may help improve patient education, and in turn adherence to inhaled medications and outcomes.
    • Examining Pharmacists’ Triggers for Hand Hygiene in a Community Pharmacy

      Matthias, Kathryn; Topping, Michelle; Suffecool, Sage; Charney, Alison; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims To identify specific triggers that lead community pharmacists to perform hand hygiene and to identify hand hygiene methods utilized based on situation type. Methods In this IRB approved study, a questionnaire was administered electronically to pharmacists through RedCap(™). Questions included multiple choice and Likert-type to identify specific triggers that pharmacists encounter that lead them to perform hand hygiene and if applicable, which method of hand hygiene they use. Data analysis was performed using STATA 14.2 (College Station, Texas). Main Results The survey was completed by 105 pharmacists. Of the community-based pharmacist subgroup (N=61), 100% selected some form of hand hygiene after using the restroom. Prior to putting on gloves and administering an immunization, 65.5% selected a recommended form of hand hygiene (hand wash with water and soap or alcohol-based hand rub) while 22.4% selected no hand hygiene. After giving an immunization, 66.6 % use a recommended form of hand hygiene while 22.8% (13/57) use no hand hygiene. 42.9% use no hand hygiene after using the cash register. Conclusions Overall, performance of hand hygiene varied among pharmacists for potential triggers. Responses showed that if hand-hygiene was completed in response to a trigger, it was not always a recommended form of hand hygiene. Based off this preliminary research, further research is needed to examine pharmacists’ triggers for hand hygiene and methods of hand hygiene.
    • Physician Response to Pharmacist Statin Therapy Recommendations for Type 2 Diabetes Patients

      Kale, Andrea; Cavender, Cole; Castaneda, Luciano; Nguyen, Steven; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Specific Aims: To determine if the response rate will be greater than the 14% response rate that was shown in the AUDIT study in 2006. The rationale is since statin therapy is recommended as part of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines, physicians will be more open to the suggestion and the response rate will be higher. Our secondary analysis is that at least an additional 5% of patients will be on statin therapy even though their physician did not respond to the fax. The rationale is that even though a physician may not respond to us via fax, they may be prompted to evaluate statin therapy for their patient and write a prescription for statin therapy. Subjects: Using Albertson’s pharmacy database, patients between the ages of 40 to 75 on metformin were filtered. Methods: This before/after study with independent groups used data obtained from a manual fax and compared the response to a previous study that was done in 2006. Main Results: A total of 26 faxes were sent out to providers notifying them that their patient qualified for statin therapy. A total of 4 responses were received with 1 patient that was appropriately initiated on statin therapy. Conclusions: There were no differences in physician response rates in our study compared to the AUDIT study with recommending statin therapy in patients 40 to 75 with type 2 diabetes mellitus that qualify for statin therapy per ADA guidelines.
    • Using Short Messaging Service (SMS) Technology to Improve Medication Adherence in Patients with Specialty Chronic Diseases at Avella Specialty Pharmacy

      Mathews, Kelly; Cooley, Janet; Gianninoto, Jenna; Goal, Oliver; Lok, Daniel; Wilkerson, Aaron; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the use of the CareSpeak Text Message Service (SMS) on adherence rate, time on therapy, and patient satisfaction. Methods: This retrospective, chart review evaluated patients using the CareSpeak SMS program at Avella Specialty Pharmacy receiving medications for cancer, hepatitis C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and inflammatory conditions from November 1, 2016 through November, 30 2017. Patients were grouped by disease state as well as Carespeak enrollment status. Information on proportion of days covered (PDC), time on therapy, and patient satisfaction were collected. Main Results: A total of 17,890 patients were evaluated. The median PDC ratio for patients with HIV was 94.63% for the non-Carespeak group and 96.5% for patients using Carespeak (P<0.001). Median Time on Therapy in days was significantly greater in the Carespeak group compared to the non-Carespeak group for patients receiving medications for oncology (340 vs 266.5 days, P<0.001), Hepatitis C (106 vs 101, P<0.001), HIV (396 vs 389, P=0.010), and Inflammatory Conditions (162 vs 160, P<0.001). Of a total of 1,159 satisfaction survey responses collected, Carespeak SMS received A’s or B’s (on a letter grade scale of A to F) in 91% of responses for helpfulness in managing patient health and 94.5% for ease of use. Conclusions: The CareSpeak SMS program was associated with improved PDC ratios in patients with HIV as well as prolonged Time on Therapy across all disease states. The Carespeak SMS service was generally graded highly in terms of helpfulness and ease of use.