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Recent Submissions

  • Hohokam Archaeology Along the Salt Gila Aqueduct Central Arizona Project - Volume IX: Synthesis and Conclusions [No. 150 Vol. 9]

    Teague, Lynn S.; Crown, Patricia L. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
    This volume is the last in a series of nine reporting the work of the Salt-Gila Aqueduct, Central Arizona Project Archaeological Data Collection Studies and Supplemental Class 3 Survey Project (SGA). This study was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Contract No. 0-07- 32-V0101) to mitigate potential adverse impacts of Central Arizona Project construction on cultural resources in the aqueduct right-of-way. Data recovery was conducted at 45 Hohokam sites along a 93 km (58 mile) transect extending from Apache Junction to a point southwest of Coolidge and near Picacho, Arizona (Fig. Intro. 1). This is the largest of the Central Arizona Project archaeological studies to date, although it may fall short of being the largest that will be conducted under the program. (excerpt from Introduction)
  • SPBAC Minutes February 3, 2021

    University of Arizona Strategic Planning and Budget Advisory Committee (SPBAC), / (The University of Arizona, 2021-02-03)
  • Las Colinas Testing: Research Design [No. 157]

    Gregory, David A.; McGuire, Thomas R. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-09)
    This report deals with the proposed testing of prehistoric and historic archaeological resources within the Interstate 10 (I-10) corridor between Interstate 17 and 30th Drive (Group II, Las Colinas) in Phoenix, Arizona. The historic and prehistoric resources are dealt with in separate sections of the research design. The research design dealing with historic resources documents the search for evidence bearing on the possible existence, character, location, and condition of any subsurface historic remains within the pertinent segment of the I-10 corridor. This research shows that for much of its recorded history the corridor segment area consisted of sparsely settled agricultural land. With the exception of several historic canal segments and a house and associated well, no evidence for the possible existence of undocumented historic resources was discovered. No surface indications of the house and well or the canal segments have been observed during the several surface surveys of the corridor. Because of the scale and accuracy of the maps from which the information was derived, it is impossible to determine precisely the former location of the house and well. Thus it is not possible to derive a specific testing program to deal with these features. Their approximate location has been noted, and the possibility of encountering the remains of the house and well has been considered in conjunction with the testing of the prehistoric resources. The approximate position and alignment of the canal segments may be plotted. It is likely that parts of these segments will be encountered during the testing for prehistoric resources, and this probability has been considered in the context of that testing. No testing specifically directed at these historic canal segments is proposed. The portion of the research design dealing with the prehistoric resources first addresses several preliminary research questions that were employed to guide the background research. Data relating to the original nature and extent of Las Colinas, to the relationship of the site to the I-10 corridor, and to the postoccupational processes that have affected the site are reviewed and discussed. For the purposes of this and subsequent discussions, the corridor is divided into six sub-areas. It is shown that Las Colinas was a large Hohokam site that probably once covered slightly less than 2 square miles. The site once contained numerous features, including several platform mounds, trash mounds, houseblocks, pit houses, borrow pits, cremations, inhumations, and possibly a ballcourt. These features were distributed in a roughly linear fashion along an approximately north-south axis. The site appears to have been occupied primarily during the Classic period (A.D. 1150 to 1450), but there is some evidence for earlier occupations. The I-10 corridor cuts the former extent of the site in an east-west direction, subsuming the feature known as Mound 8 and passing slightly north of the feature designated Mound 7. The principal postoccupational processes that have affected Las Colinas include cultivation of the land and associated activities, and the construction of houses, buildings and roads. Most of the major features at the site had been substantially disturbed or destroyed by 1930. The postoccupational processes occurring within the I-10 corridor mirror those experienced by the site as a whole. All but one of the corridor sub-areas had been brought under cultivation by 1889, and parts of the area were still being farmed through the 1950s and even the 1960s. Several early residences associated with the agricultural use of the area were constructed within or near the corridor, but the development of the bulk of the corridor area for residential purposes did not occur until the 1950s and even the 1960s. Even today, substantial portions of the corridor segment under consideration remain as open lots and fields. A testing program based on the information from the preliminary research is presented. Additional research questions are generated to guide the proposed testing, and these questions are related to several current issues in Hohokam archaeology. The methodology to be employed for the testing is outlined and discussed. The techniques to be used include remote sensing (Subsurface Interface Radar), backhoe trenching, and some hand excavation. The specific combinations of these techniques to be used in each of the corridor sub-areas are presented and discussed. These combinations of techniques are tailored to the existing information for each sub-area and to the managerial and scientific goals of the proposed testing. The kinds of data to be collected and the modes of analysis to be employed in processing those data are presented. A plan of work is included in the Appendix.
  • Hohokam Palettes [No. 196]

    White, Devin Alan (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004)
    This study focuses on one of the few hallmark artifacts from the Hohokam Pre-Classic period: palettes. Previous research on palettes is synthesized and the nature of the prehistoric production, distribution, and use-lives of these artifacts is explored. The term "palette" is found to inadequately and inaccurately describe the many ways in which these artifacts were used within Hohokam society. In its place, the author suggests that the term "tablet" be used for the artifact class. Important byproducts of this study are life-size and highly accurate line drawings of over one thousand palettes, as well as a fully searchable relational database.
  • Effects of Inundation on Cultural Resources in Painted Rock Reservoir, Arizona, An Assessment [No. 149]

    Phillips, David A., Jr.; Rozen, Kenneth (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-04)
    In August 1981 the Cultural Resource Management Division of the Arizona State Museum carried out a 640-acre archaeological survey at Painted Rock Dam in southwestern Arizona. The study, sponsored by the Los Angeles District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, assessed the effects of inundation on rock alignments and other remains. Intensive survey revealed 82 finds in or near the study area, ranging from isolated artifacts to "Rock City," a complex of trails, rock alignments, and artifacts. The remains range in age from probably Preceramic to Recent, but in many cases the actual age and cultural affiliation of finds were ambiguous. This report attempts to distinguish ancient from recent alignments and assesses the potential significance of the remains. Ability to assess the effects of inundation was limited by the lack of pre-inundation data. Nonetheless, some conclusions were reached. Inundation damage was largely due to wave action and was most pronounced on slopes and on top of ridges or knolls. Wave action could ultimately destroy all sites within the reservoir area, but the rate of destruction is unknown and will vary according to the physical setting of sites. The report ends with recommendations for a program of site monitoring and testing and excavation of sites in immediate danger.
  • Social Identities Among Archaic Mobile Hunters and Gatherers in the American Southwest [No. 197]

    McBrinn, Maxine (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005)
    The mobile hunters and gatherers of the Archaic Southwest were members of at least three different kinds of social groups: bands, endogamous marriage groups and a risk-sharing economic network. By comparing the geographic distributions of iconological and technological style in cordage, sandals and projectile points, it is possible to distinguish marriage groups from the larger economic networks. Using artifacts from Bat Cave, Tularosa Cave and Cordova Cave in the New Mexico Mogollon and from Presnal Shelter in the Tularosa Basin, this research was able to demonstrate that technological style in fiber artifacts is more geographically constrained than iconological style in textiles or projectile points indicating that although groups using these rock shelters came from different bands, they belonged to the same marriage group, yet participated in different risk-sharing economic networks.
  • Pima County Land Exchange Survey [No. 151]

    Hartmann, Gayle Harrison (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-08)
    This archaeological survey was conducted for Pima County in connection with a recent land trade agreement. Approximately 19.2 square kilometers were surveyed: 9.7 square kilometers near the Pima County Fairgrounds and 9.5 square kilometers in Tucson Mountain Park. Nineteen sites were recorded by the survey; three are on the Fairgrounds property and 16 are in Tucson Mountain Park. Five belong primarily to the historic period, and 14 are primarily prehistoric. The prehistoric sites range from stone quarries, to hilltop camps with rock features, to long-term camps near drainages. The environmental zone model that structured the survey was determined to be useful, but only in a general way. Some problems are discussed about the applicability of this and other similar models for future survey work. Recommendations are that, with the exception of the northern part of Section 15, archaeological clearance be granted for the Fairgrounds parcels. In Tucson Mountain Park, sites are legally protected and no land modification is planned. However, if the Park plans any improvements, such as trails or interpretive exhibits, it is recommended that all sites be avoided. It is also recommended that the archaeological and historical resources not be signed and that attention not be called to their locations.
  • The 1968 Excavations at Mound 8 Las Colinas Ruins Group, Phoenix, Arizona [No. 154]

    Hammack, Laurens C.; Sullivan, Alan P. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-09)
    This report describes the nature, extent, and results of archaeological excavations conducted at Mound 8 of the Las Colinas Ruins Group, Phoenix, Arizona. The excavations, undertaken in 1968, and subsequent analyses carried out during the following decade, were supervised by Laurens C. Hammack, then of the Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. The Arizona State Museum excavations were authorized by the Arizona Department of Transportation as part of an annual Statewide Archaeological Contract between the two agencies. Las Colinas is a Classic period (A.D. 1100-1450) Hohokam site located between Interstate 17 and 27th Avenue, south of McDowell Road, in Phoenix. The site consists of a specially constructed platform mound, habitation structures, and assorted features. These prehistoric remains were damaged by the construction of a historic adobe house in the 1880s and by vandalism through the following years. Mound 8, and the remains in the immediate vicinity, are threatened by the proposed construction of a segment of Interstate 10 known as the Papago Freeway. Excavations focused on Mound 8, although the flat area east of the mound was tested; a single cremation area was discovered there. Habitation structures on and around the mound were excavated also. It was determined that the mound was composed of post-reinforced, adobe-walled cells and encircling walls that formed the core of the structure. Various additions were made to this core, the most notable of which was a massive, solid-adobe wall. The top of the mound was capped with a layer of adobe on four different occasions. At least 22 habitation structures, both pit houses and houses with solid-adobe walls, were discovered during the excavations. The range of structure morphology for any given period of occupation is much greater than that previously reported for other Classic period Hohokam sites. These and numerous other architectural features are discussed in this report. Substantial collections of ceramic, chipped stone, and ground stone artifacts were recovered. These assemblages were thoroughly analyzed. The methods and results of these analyses are reported in this volume. In addition, specialized analyses were performed on a wide range of materials recovered from the excavations. These analyses, described in appendices, pertain to human osteological remains, disposal of the dead, mammalian remains, bone artifacts, avian remains, shell artifacts, pollen identification, charcoal identification, and historic artifacts. A final appendix lists Arizona State Museum catalogue numbers for many of the artifacts and illustrations found in the volume.
  • The Arizona State Museum Cultural Resource Management Division Data Recovery Manual [No. 158]

    Teague, Lynn S. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)
    While the Cultural Resource Management Division (CRMD) of the Arizona State Museum (ASM) has had an official Survey Manual since 1980, it has not had a corresponding Data Recovery Manual. The need for such a manual has become increasingly apparent in recent years as the CRMD has conducted a growing number of projects involving collection and excavation of sites. This volume will satisfy that need. lt is not possible to present in one publication all of the information required to guide personnel in the field. For this reason the CRMD has adopted the Simon Fraser University Guide to Basic Archaeological Field Procedures (Fladmark 1980) as a standard background text for field techniques. The CRMD Data Recovery Manual will concentrate on specific technical procedures for intensive surface collection and site excavation in Southwestern contexts. The information presented in this manual should not be accepted as dogma. Every project is unique, and no single inflexible approach to all technical problems will be appropriate. Rather, the manual should be used for general guidance and should not stand in the way of project-specific decision making when this is called for. The CRMD Data Recovery Manual has been organized in a sequence comparable to that of the Simon Fraser Guide (SFG). Sections of the manual amend and add to the specific sections of the SFG. The ASM Survey Manual (Vogler 1980) serves this function for Chapter 1 of the SFG. Examples of standard forms are provided in the Data Recovery Manual along with instructions for their use. Although individual projects may require data not elicited by these forms, and the detail with which individual information classes are covered may vary, all information requested on these forms is essential to good basic recording. Some response should be made in each information category. (excerpt from the Introduction)
  • The 1979-1983 Testing at Los Morteros (AZ AA:12:57 ASM), A Large Hohokam Village Site in the Tucson Basin [No. 177]

    Lange, Richard C.; Deaver, William L. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989)
    Los Morteros (AZ AA:12:57 [ASM]) is a large Hohokam village site located at the northern end of the Tucson Mountains along the Santa Cruz River. Named for the bedrock mortars located near the center of the site, Los Morteros has a rich and varied history. Several phases of prehistoric occupation are suggested by ceramics representing the Colonial, Sedentary, and Classic periods (A.D. 500 to 1450). The range of features present is considerable, including cremation pits, pit houses, roasting pits, mounds, canals, petroglyphs, hill-side terraces (trincheras), a ballcourt, and the bedrock mortars. Spatially, th~ site covers a large area, but most features are clustered in a limited core area (Fig. 1.1). The area around Los Morteros has also been used during historical times (see Stein 1982). In this report reference to the historical period is limited to those events that bear directly on the site of Los Morteros, in particular the history of archaeological interest in the site. Our major concern is with the prehistoric components at Los Morteros. (excerpt from Introduction)
  • Prehistory of the St. Johns Area, East-Central Arizona: The TEP St. Johns Project [No. 153]

    Westfall, Deborah A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981)
    The TEP St. Johns Project was conducted by the Cultural Resource Management Section of the Arizona State Museum under contract to Tucson Electric Power Company and was designed to mi~igate impacts to cultural resources located within a proposed railrbad right-of-way corridor east of St. Johns, Arizona. The proposed corridor begins at a point 8 miles northeast of St, Johns and extends 27 miles southward to the proposed TEP Springerville Generating Station north of Springerville, Arizona. The corridor crosses both State and private lands; no federal lands were involved. Archaeological investigations on State lands were conducted under Arizona State Museum Permits No. 79-15 (Phase I) and No. 79-21 (Phase 11). A preexcavation testing phase determined that 14 of 25 recorded sites within the corridor warranted intensive study; 12 of these yielded evidence for occupation by Archaic groups, and two were small Cibola Anasazi pueblos occupied in the Pueblo I I and Pueblo 111 periods (A.D. 1050 to 1200). The research design stressed the need to describe and define the Archaic culture pattern represented in th~ St. Johns area, which had previously been the subject of only limited study. Evidence was found for an intermittent Archaic occupation spanning 5500 B.C. to A.D. 600, and the settlement pattern was found to have interesting parallels with the pattern described by Irwin-Williams (1973) for the 0shara Tradition in northwestern New Mexico. Analysis of data focused on describing vafiabil ity in lithic reduction technology and attempted to ascertain if this variability could be related to temporal and cultural change. The two pueblo sites were found to be individual components of a larger Cibola Anasazi pueblo settlement of 11 small pueblos (the Platt Ranch Settlement). The settlement was occupied for a relatively short period--between A.D. 1050 and 1250. An interesting aspect of the pueblos was that all were constructed of adobe rather than rock masonry. The research strategy addressed problems of determining whether occupation was seasonal or permanent and the subsequent implications for defining Puebloan settlement systems duiing the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods in the upper Little Colorado River region.
  • An Archaeological Assessment of the Proposed Catalina State Park [No. 141]

    Huckell, Lisa W. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980-05)
    In April of 1980, the Cultural Resource Management Section (CRMS) of the Arizona State Museum (ASM) contracted with Arizona State Parks to provide an archaeological assessment of a portion of the proposed Catalina State Park lands. Approximately 9.7 square km (3.75 square miles) of the proposed park, which is located roughly 22 km (14 miles) north of Tucson, Arizona, were surveyed, and a records check and literature search were undertaken for the area. Two previous CRMS projects, the Rancho Romero reconnaissance (Roubicek, Cummings, and Hartmann 1973) and the Canada del Oro assessment (Brew 1975), had studied portions of the present project area, but to acquire the precise archaeological information required by Arizona State Park planners for the first phase of park development for public use, additional study of the area, especially in the form of survey work, was deemed mandatory. The archaeological survey that was conducted in conjunction with preparing the archaeological assessment resulted in the location of four previously unrecorded prehistoric sites (two camp sites, one resource- processing locality, and one agriculture-related water-control system); the relocation of known sites, with the correction of some erroneous site loca- tions; the definition of zones of moderate artifact density that will require additional investigation; and photographic documentation of all recent his- toric structures encountered in the project area. The literature search revealed seven previously recorded sites in the project area, some additional historical information on ranching activities in the vicinity, and sources that should produce more in-depth data for future studies. This report provides both a summary of the available information on the prehistoric and historic resources contained in the study area and recommendations regarding their management, and discusses the eligibility of various sites for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places and the Arizona State Register of Historic Places.
  • Highway Salvage on Arizona State Highway 98: Kayenta Anasazi Sites Between Kaibito and the Klethla Valley [No. 140]

    Anderson, Keith M. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980-04)
    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the · Arizona State Highway 98 salvage project, conducted in 1967. The col- lections and field notes for the present repor~ have traveled with the author of the in the on a circuitous path, until the report was finished. Analysis artifacts has been completed by several people, as recognized acknowledgments. The present report presents the results of part of the salvage excavations in the right-of-way of Navajo Route 22, now State Highway 98, which connects U.S. Highway 160 in the Klethla Valley with Page, Arizona (Figure 1). In 1966, Calvin H. Jennings and Larry E. Powers recorded 21 sites during survey of this corridor. During the following year, eleven of these sites were tested or excavated. From July 10 to August 10, 1967, Jennings supervised the excavation o( six sites within the eastern 17 miles of Highway 98. Between September 18 and October 27, 1967, the author, assisted by Peter J. Pilles, Jr., excavated five more sites in the adjacent 14-mile section of the highway extending west to Kaibito, Arizona. The latter phase of the work is reported here; the report for the eastern portion has not yet been written, although I have included some illustrations of two of the sites excavated by Jennings for com- parative purposes. The information in this report is presented in order to add to the rapidly accumulating data on Kayenta Anasazi settlement. The Highway 98 project is one of several corridor salvage operations con- ducted in this part of the Kayenta region during the last 20 years. These excavations have all taken place in a rather limited area, includ- ing the Klethla Valley (Bliss 1960; Ambler and Olson 1977), the Shonta Plateau (Anderson 1969), and the area west of Klethla Valley included in this report. In the near future, other information for this area will be available in the report of large-scale salvage operations along the Black Mesa to Lake Powell coal-haul railroad corridor. All of these projects are in close proximity to two intensive, long-term projects-- the Long House Valley survey and survey and excavations on Black Mesa-- that have systematically accumulated environmental and cultural data for the study and understanding of Kayenta settlement and climatic change. [excerpt from the Introduction]
  • The Archaic Occupation of the Rosemont Area, Northern Santa Rita Mountains, Southeastern Arizona [No. 147, Vol. 1]

    Huckell, Bruce B. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
    This report describes and discusses data recovery operations at 10 Archaic sites within the ANAMAX-Rosemont land exchange area in the northern Santa Rita Mountains on the Coronado National Forest, south- eastern Arizona. The nature of the post-Paleo-Indian, preceramic occupation of the Southwestern region is briefly discussed, and use of the term "Archaic" to describe this occupation is justified. A general description of the upland or montane environmental setting of the Rosemont area is provided, and a brief discussion of paleoenvironmental conditions is presented. Theoretical foundations for the study of the sites as examples of the use of the area by prehistoric hunting- gathering societies are also stated, as are the principal research problem domains: the cultural and temporal affinities, and the subsistence-settlement systems reflected by the sites. Field methods are discussed, followed by specific descriptions of the results of investigations conducted at each site. The methods by which the artifact assemblages from the sites were analyzed are next presented, and the nature and composition of the artifact assemblage from each site is described in detail. Three periods of occupation: Early(?), Middle, and Late Archaic, are represented in these assemblages. Each of these periods is defined and discussed, and extensive comparisons of the artifact assemblages from the Rosemont sites with those recovered from sites elsewhere in the Southwest and surrounding areas are made. It is proposed that the Rosemont sites show close affinities to those elsewhere in the general Southwestern region, and that continued use of the Cochise culture as a subregional cultural-historical entity is inappropriate. Use of the phrase "Southwestern Archaic" is urged, in recognition of these close interregional relationships. Analysis of specific subsistence activities and settlement patterns represented by the Rosemont sites is undertaken. Statistical analyses of artifact assemblage composition suggest functionally differentiated site classes, correlable in certain instances to settlement location, resource distribution, and perhaps seasonality. Data from sites recorded by survey but not further investigated are added to the information from the 10 investigated sites, and a broader view of subsistence-settlement systems through time and the changing role of the Rosemont area in that framework are proposed. Finally, the value of smaller, open Archaic sites for the study of cultural-temporal and subsistence-settlement phenomena is affirmed, and suggestions for future research on the Southwestern Archaic are made.
  • Mixed-bloods, Apaches, and Cattle Barons: Documents for a History of the Livestock Economy on the White Mountain Reservation, Arizona [No. 142]

    McGuire, Thomas R. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980)
    In the late 19th century, Corydon E. Cooley, an Anglo scout for the military at Fort Apache, married two Apache women. Cooley's descendants, primarily the Amos families, accommodated themselves in varying degrees to the customs of Western Apache society and to the authority exerted by officials of the Indian Service. Throughout their long residence on the reservation, these mixed-blood families developed peculiar social and economic positions. They lived apart from established Indian communities, in the remote Corduroy Creek region near the northern boundary of the reservation. They ran cattle on individually assigned ranges, while most Apache were encouraged and induced to join cooperative Indian livestock associations under the superv1s1on of government stockmen. During the early 1950s, these mixed-blood families were excluded from access to reservation ranges at a time when tribal and Bureau of Indian Affairs officials were attempting to strengthen the foundations of the Indian cattle associations and to recover all leased and individually assigned range for Apache use. The history of these families, and of the larger regional society and economy of the first half of the 20th century, is presented, based upon oral testimony, BIA documents, and other archival materials. Comparisons are then made among three distinct types of livestock operations on the reservation: the family-oriented ranches of Cooley's descendants, the tribal cattle associations, and the large-scale cattle and sheep outfits that leased extensive areas of the reservation.
  • Hohokam Habitation Sites in the Northern Santa Rita Mountains [No. 147, Vol. 2, Part 1]

    Ferg, Alan; Rozen, Kenneth C.; Deaver, William L.; Tagg, Martyn D.; Phillips, David A., Jr.; Gregory, David A. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
    Excavations at 22 ceramic period sites in the Rosemont area of the northern Santa Rita Mountains, Coronado National Forest, are described. Investigations have e~tablished that these sites were occupied by the Tucson Basin Hohokam more or less continuously from approximately A.D. 500 until abandonment of the area at approximately A.D. 1200. The ceramic period prehistory of southeastern Arizona is outlined in the first chapter, and the research design for work at the Rosemont sites is presented in the second chapter. Next each site that received investigation is briefly described, including discussions of the features, artifacts, and length of occupation of each. This is followed by a series of six chapters which present the results of specialized analyses of various classes of material culture. The first of these discusses the pottery from the sites. Detailed definitions and descriptions of the plain, painted, and red ware pottery types are presented, and a model of decorative stylistic development of Tucson Basin painted pottery is introduced. Potential and temporal changes are explored as well; a few temporal trends are noted, but no functional differentiation was identified. The flaked stone artifacts are rigorously described, and both the implements and debitage are subjected to detailed technological, formal, and functional examinations. This study demonstrates that the assemblages display a great deal of consistency in all attributes, and that there is little evidence of technological, formal, or functional variability among the sites. Only projectile point styles exhibit change through time. The ground stone artifacts, divided into utilitarian and nonutilitarian forms, are treated in the next two chapters. A series of formal and functional classes is defined for both, and the various classes are described in detail. Possible functions are discussed, and each class is compared to similar classes from other sites and other areas. It is noted that the Rosemont ground stone artifacts are generally simple, unembellished forms made of local materials, and that the assemblages from all sites are quite similar. Shell artifacts are next described and discussed, and are again found to be relatively simple forms, probably entering the area as finished items. Comparisons show them to be similar to forms known from other Hohokam sites. In the ninth chapter an analysis of the factors influencing settlement location is presented. Variables such as topography, soils, vegetation, elevation, and distance to permanent water are found to have low correlations to site location, but location of sites is highly correlated to stream profile gradient. Comparisons with sites located in similar areas in southeastern Arizona suggest that this variable may have considerable explanatory and predictive power. The last chapter pulls together all available data to examine the nature of the Hohokam occupation of the Rosemont area. Functional site types and intrasite organization are first discussed. Three categories of functional site types (new farmsteads, stable or growing farmsteads, and one site with a ballcourt) are recognized, as is a pattern on intrasite organization which is probably based in part on Hohokam customs and in part on local topography. Economy and subsistence are next examined, and from the meager data available it is proposed that maize agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering of upland fauna and flora supported the area's inhabitants. Examination of areal and regional relationships indicates principal contacts with the Phoenix Basin Hohokam, the Mogollon, and the Trincheras cultures. Intrusive decorated pottery is the primary evidence for contact, although the presence of a large number of inhumations and certain aspects of architecture provide further documentation of intercultural contact. The nature of the Tucson Basin Hohokam occupation of the area is next traced in terms of site distribution, population distribution, and intersite organization. Possible organization of the Rosemont "local system" is discussed, and reconstructions of temporal trends in settlement and population numbers are presented. Unstable climatic conditions, in conjunction with overexploitation of the local resource base, is suggested to be the ultimate cause of abandonment of the Rosemont area.
  • Geologic map of the Cunningham Mountain Quadrangle, La Paz County, Arizona

    Johnson, Bradford J.; Ferguson, Charles A.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Richardson, Carson A.; Arizona Geological Survey (Arizona Geological Survey (Tucson, AZ), 2021-01-29)
  • Rosemont: The History and Archaeology of Post-1880 Sites in the Rosemont Area, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona [No. 147, Vol. 3]

    Ayres, James E. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
    The Rosemont historic sites project was performed by Archaeological Research Services, Inc. for the Arizona State Museum as part of a larger archaeological mitigation program for sites to be impacted by a proposed land exchange between the u.s. Forest Service and the ANAMAX Mining Company. The project area was located on the northeast flank of the Santa Rita Mountains in Pima County. It was situated on the Wasp Canyon, McCleary Canyon and Barrel Canyon washes and their tributaries. The sites were found between 4720 feet to about 5400 feet in elevation. Two sites were located on the west side of the mountains. A total of 30 sites, covering a period of over 100 years, was investigated from early May 1982 to the end of October 1982. The results of the field study are presented in Chapters 4 to 8. Chapter 4 covers the 14 sites identified as mining related sites, including the two communities of Old and New Rosemont. From a historical and an archaeological perspective, the latter two sites were probably the most important of all the sites studied. Chapter 5 reports the results of the study of five ranches. Four of these sites were small operations where the tenants owned none of the land. The VR Ranch was the only one of the five sites that could be considered a ranch in the traditional sense. It is still occupied. Chapter 6 presents the results of the study of the u.s. Forest Service facility near Old Rosemont. The two sites were occupied from about 1904 to about 1937. Chapter 7 discusses the site of the Old Rosemont school and a site believed to have been occupied by at least one of the many school teachers. The final chapter, Chapter 8, presents information on seven sites whose exact functions or purposes are unknown. Some of these sites experienced multiple occupations. Accompanying the archaeological field project was an effort to locate historical records and photographs and to interview knowledgeable individuals, for the purpose of obtaining as much relevant historical information on the 30 sites as practicable. The data from these sources were combined with the archaeological data collected to provide as complete a view as possible of life in mining camps, small ranches, government related sites and other sites in the Rosemont area. This research has resulted in an archaeological study of 30 sites. In a larger sense, it has also contributed to a better understanding of the Mexican sub culture and its role in the development of southern Arizona, of the history of mining and ranching in the Rosemont area and of the economic interaction networks operative through time. It has also provided information on subsistence, on settlement, on the general character of the population and, to a lesser extent, on the technology of the time.
  • Miscellaneous Archaeological Studies in the ANAMAX-Rosemont Land Exchange Area [No. 147, Vol. 4]

    Tagg, Martyn D.; Ervin, Richard G.; Huckell, Bruce B. (Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
    The four studies contained in this volume report the results of work undertaken at a number of different types of sites in the northern Santa Rita Mountains of southeastern Arizona. All these studies were performed within the ANAMAX-Rosemont land exchange area in the Coronado National Forest as part of a 10-month-long mitigation effort conducted by the Arizona State Museum. Chapter 1 presents a description of detailed investigations at lithic material procurement sites in the Rosemont area. Two types of lithic material procurement sites are identified and described, and the kinds of flaked stone artifacts present at these sites are analyzed and discQssed in detail. Evidence suggests that the majority of these sites resulted from the rather casual, nonintensive reduction of cobbles of quartzite and metasediment or, in one case, a relatively intensive utilization of two bedrock outcrops of silicified limestone. While most of the artifacts present at these sites are debitage, cores, and tested pieces, a few finished, retouched artifacts at certain of these sites suggest the possibility that activities other than the reduction of lithic raw materials were also pursued on a limited basis. Chapter 2 describes the investigatJon of two sites in Sycamore Canyon, which is a major drainage system on the west side of the ridgeline of the Santa Rita Mountains, 5 km northwest of Rosemont. Excavation of the two sites produced relatively abundant quantities of artifacts representing occupations ranging from the Middle Archaic period through the Historic period. Detailed comparisons of the flaked stone asemblages from the Sycamore Canyon sites are made with those from the Archaic and Hohokam sites in the Rosemont area, and allow the inference that most of the occupation at the Sycamore Canyon sites occurred during the Archaic period. It is further suggested that both sites were used as temporary campsites for the seasonal exploitation of wild plant and animal resources during prehistoric and early historic times. The third chapter presents data from test excavations carried out at three Sobaipuri of Upper Piman sites located in the Rosemont area. These sites were investigated in 1979, but adjustments to the land exchange boundaries resulted in their ultimate exclusion from the exchange area. The testing serves to document the presence of Sobaipuri residential sites in a montane setting, and indicates that at least two of the three were occupied shortly after Spanish contact. Chapter 4 describes the investigation of a single site located at the western edge of the land exchange area near Helvetia. This site consists of residential structures positioned on artificially constructed rock terraces emplaced on steeply sloping topography. The recovered artifact assemblage suggests a late Rincon or early Tanque Verde phase age for the site. The limited nature of the work done at the site, coupled with an impoverished artifact assemblage, suggests that the site saw use for a short time, possibly seasonally, for an unknown purpose.
  • Geologic Map of the Trigo Pass 7 ½ ’ Quadrangle, La Paz County, Arizona

    Ferguson, Charles A.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Arizona Geological Survey (Arizona Geological Survey (Tucson, AZ), 2021-01)

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