Now showing items 4095-4114 of 19159

    • Babocomari Indian village located on the Babocomari River; an archaeological site in southeastern Arizona

      Di Peso, Charles C. (Charles Corradino); Getty, Harry T. (The University of Arizona., 1950)
    • Baby Chick Troubles

      Hinds, H. B. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1927-12)
    • Baby Your Heart: Neonatal Congenital Heart Defects

      Cohen, Zoe; Joyce, Mackenzie Reed (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Baby's Got Heart: Congenital Heart Issues in Newborns

      Cohen, Zoe; Schwartfeger, Stephen James (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Pediatric congenital heart defects primarily occur during fetal heart embryological development. This purpose of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive review of the basic cardiovascular physiology, focusing on three separate components - the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood - and a current look at three common occurring conditions. The congenital heart defects are reviewed with an anatomical overview of the condition, patient presentation, current surgical repairs, and life expectancies following successful repair. Repairs of tetralogy of fallot report mortality rates below 3%, compared to a 50% mortality rate prior to development of surgical repairs (Apitz). Transposition of the great arteries repaired with the relatively new Nikaidoh procedure show 95% late survivability rates (Martins). For truncus arteriosus, currently 83% of patients survive past 15 years (Soriano). Continuing research and refinement of existing surgical techniques are expected to increase survivorship from this congenital heart defects. To help families and patients understand that congenital condition their loved one may have, a very easy to understand picture book was created. This can hopefully inspire further improvements in family resources to aid in comprehension of congenital heart diseases.
    • Back-Scattering of 3.21-cm Radiation by Water Bubbles

      Battan, Louis J.; Herman, Benjamin M.; Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1960-08-15)
    • Background and Research on Copper Alloys as an Antimicrobial Surface and the CusB protein of the Copper-Transporting Efflux System CusCFBA

      Andrade, Cassandra Jo (The University of Arizona., 2010-05)
      Bactericidal properties of copper surfaces have been investigated in search of selfsanitizing materials in food and healthcare industries. However, bacteria in these environments are rapidly acquiring antibiotic and heavy metal resistance, which is thought to be a co-selection process (Baker-Austin, 2006). Copper-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs fed copper sulfate were examined (Hasman, 2002). Survival of strains was tested by timed incubation on onesquare- inch copper alloys with varying degrees of moisture during inoculation of the surfaces. Results showed rapid killing of E. coli and E. faecium copper-resistant strains when samples were spread in a thin layer on alloys with 85 % or greater copper content. E. coli strains had short survival rates under dry conditions while E. faecium strains were less affected. Dry or wet inoculations had no effect on the survival rates on stainless steel, since strains survived equally and no die-off was seen. Re-inoculation with E. coli on the alloys every 3 hours over a 24-hour period showed no CFUs remaining at each time point tested while bacteria survived without reduction of CFUs on the stainless steel controls after 24 hours. Results indicate that the bactericidal properties of metallic copper surfaces can be effective in killing copper-resistant strains of E. coli and E. faecium.
    • Background Characterization In The 4top Search At The ATLAS Experiment

      Varnes, Erich; Stoken, Alex Harrison (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      A data-driven approach is taken to estimate the background and find optimal cuts for the four-top-quark search at the ATLAS Experiment for √s=13 TeV. Using 140fb-1 of data generated from the Large Hadron Collider from 2015 through 2018, the Monte Carlo simulated background is reweighted by a function of HTall to match the distribution of data. This correction function is then used to build MC signal and background distributions. To ding the best region to search for the four-top signal, the significance of the signal to background is measured for various lower bounds, and the optimal selection criteria of Nbjets>2 jets, Njets>9 jets, HTall>660000 MeV, and jetpt>60000 MeV are chosen. These cuts produce a significance of 1.0077 and yield 60.22 expected signal events and 3511 expected background events in the data sample.
    • Backyard Bedsides: An Exploration of the Loss of Childhood Innocence

      Starbuck, Nicole Sari (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      Backyard Bedsides is a series of paintings that explore the loss of innocence associated with childhood abuse and premature sexual discovery. The work focuses on the psychological and emotional repercussions of such events on prepubescent behavior and adolescent development. The images reference composite photographs, scientific studies, statistics, testimonials, and personal experience. The paintings also examine how color, composition, and context can be used to express feelings of isolation, confusion, and conflict. In this way, the paintings depict not realistic space, but psychological space. They provide a glimpse into the mind of the abused.
    • Backyard Fruit Production at Elevations 3500 to 6000 Feet

      Young, Deborah; Call, Robert; Kilby, Michael; Plant Pathology (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000-02)
      This publication discusses some backyard fruits that can be grown at elevations between 3500 to 6000 feet and also lists varieties of each fruit by harvest season.
    • Backyard Fruit Production at Elevations 3500 to 6000 Feet

      Young, Deborah; Call, Robert E; Kilby, Michael; DeGomez, Tom (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-03)
      The mid elevations (3,500 to 6,000 feet) in Arizona can be ideal for growing tree fruit. Site selection can make a pronounced effect on how well fruit will grow and produce. The warmer the site the greater the chance of success. Areas where cold air settles are a poor choice for tree fruit production. Variety selection is very important for good fruit production.February and March are the best months to plant bare root trees, although they can be planted anytime during the dormant season. Try to plant 30 days before bud break. Containerized plants are best planted in late September through early October. The open center pruning system allows for more sunlight to reach all the branches of the tree. Whereas the central leader is used with those trees that are less vigorous. Training trees when young is an important step in ensuring a strong scaffold system when bearing. Fruit thinning helps to control fruit size and consistent bearing. Proper fertilization, irrigation, and pest control will promote healthy productive trees.
    • Bacon, Warrant, and Classification

      Olson, Hope A.; Breitenstein, Mikel (dLIST, 2004)
      Warrant, in classification, is encompassed in the Oxford English DictionaryiÌ s definition: "justifying reason or ground for an action, belief, or feeling." Classifications may be deemed good or bad on the basis of any number of characteristics, but the justification for their choice and order of classes or concepts is one of the most fundamental. This paper will introduce the notion of warrant used by Francis Bacon in his classification of knowledge, discuss its uniqueness within the panoply of classificatory history, and suggest that Bacon still has a radical idea to suggest to todayiÌ s classificationists.
    • Bacterial Diversity of the Atacama Desert, Chile: The Challenges of Characterizing the Community Dynamics of Extreme Oligotrophic Ecosystems

      Maier, Raina M.; Neilson, Julia Worsley; Pepper, Ian L.; Rasmussen, Craig; Arnold, Anne Elizabeth; Maier, Raina M. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      This dissertation examines the bacterial diversity of hyperarid and arid regions of the Atacama Desert, Chile, as a first step towards understanding the global biogeochemical significance of arid-land microbial communities. The specific objectives were to characterize bacterial diversity and infer the possible metabolic potential of these bacterial communities, and to evaluate the influence of moisture exposure on community structure. In addition, the strengths and limitations of available tools for probing microbial diversity and activity in terrestrial ecosystems were characterized for their application to extreme oligotrophic communities. Preliminary PCR-DGGE analysis of a west-east elevational transect from the Pacific Ocean near Antofagasta to the western slopes of the central Andes indicated that bacterial communities along this transect belonged to two distinct community types: 1) hyperarid (700 - 2000 m) and 2) arid (2500 - 4500 m) communities that included both vegetated and unvegetated regions. Subsequent diversity analysis of these two regions revealed novel but distinct communities in both regions. A greater diversity was observed in the unvegetated arid regions than in the unvegetated hyperarid areas. The unvegetated arid sites were characterized by a bacterial community harboring a combination of radiotolerant and halotolerant heterotrophs as wells as diverse phylotypes closely related to chemolithoautotrophs. These rare phylotypes may be uniquely adapted to arid ecosystems. Molecular tools evaluated for community diversity analysis included PCR-DGGE, Sanger-clone and 454-pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, and the use of reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for quantifying the impact of environmental variables on the metabolic activity of a specific organism. These techniques were evaluated using the ecosystems of the Atacama Desert as well as model ecosystems designed to address specific questions. Molecular tools are invaluable to the study of microbial ecology because they facilitate the study of fastidious organisms that are difficult or impossible to culture, but the analysis presented in this dissertation demonstrates that each of these methods has limitations and biases which must be acknowledged to avoid inaccurate conclusions from skewed results. The most complete picture of the taxonomic and functional profile of a microbial community is obtained by employing a combination of molecular techniques.
    • Bacterial Heart-Rot of Celery

      Brown, J. G.; Boyle, Alice M. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1951-02)
    • Bacterial Soft-Rot of Vegetables

      Stone, William J. H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1965-08)
      A highly virulent bacterial isolate was obtained from Arizona vegetables. Pathogenicity and physiological studies were made in an effort to correctly identify the isolate.
    • Bacterial transport, distribution and activity in porous media

      Maier, R. M.; Jordan, Fiona Lya (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Understanding the extent of microbial transport, distribution and activity in the subsurface is paramount for effective in-situ bioremediation. In one study, we investigated the impact a substrate pulse has on the movement of inoculated or indigenous bacteria through saturated porous media. In another study, we developed a method to visualize the distribution of bacteria on soil surfaces. The elution of either inoculated or indigenous bacteria was monitored from model (homogenous) sand or natural (heterogenous) soil column systems. Sand columns receiving salicylate resulted in enhanced elution of inoculated P. putida. However, the salicylate pulse did not result in enhanced elution of P. putida from a natural system. For natural heterogenous systems, the salicylate pulse significantly affected the elution of certain indigenous bacteria. Specifically, more heterotrophs were eluted from soil columns receiving salicylate than from those that did not for both loamy sand soils tested. On the other hand, there were consistently fewer salicylate-degrading cells eluted in the presence of salicylate from one of the two soils tested. These data suggest that bacterial transport is a function of both the porous medium and the microbial population(s) under investigation. In the second study, an agar lift-DNA/DNA hybridization technique was developed to visualize the distribution of eubacteria on soil surfaces. Briefly, a single layer of soil was lifted from the surface of soil microcosms onto agar slabs and allowed to incubate. Bacterial colonies were lifted from the agar slabs onto membranes. The location of individual colonies was detected on the membranes by hybridization with a probe complementary to a conserved region of the eubacterial genome. This method was able to detect active microorganisms on different soil surfaces. The probe signal correlated well with the number of metabolically active microorganisms found in soils amended with a carbon source. This technique also allowed for visualization of localized microbial activity. A combined approach utilizing both soil column studies and the agar-lift technique should allow researchers to better elucidate microbial transport, distribution and activity in subsurface environments.
    • Bad Blood: Cons of Synthetic Blood Substitutes

      Guerra, Andres (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
      In recent years scientists have been attempting to develop synthetic blood substitutes in order to counter both the shortage in donor blood and the problems associated with infection and disease during allogeneic transfusion. Most attempts have been made at mimicking the oxygen carrying capabilities of red blood cells yet there is still a broad array of substances in use today that try to simulate the effects of whole blood, not just the red blood cell itself. This literature based thesis extensively discuses the importance of all blood components and reviews the recent developments and problems associated with volume expanders, oxygen carriers which are further subcategorized into hemoglobin-based substitutes and perfluorocarbons, erythropoietin use, and autologous blood transfusions. Their short term use has potential benefits but in the long term some of their shortcomings include hypertension, hypoproteinemia, thrombus formation, abnormal vasoactivity, anaphylaxis, and ischemic reperfusion injury, all of which tend to overshadow their benefits.
    • Bagrada Bug: A New Pest for Arizona Gardeners

      Bealmear, Stacey; Warren, Peter; Young, Kelly (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2012-12)
    • The Bahamas Biocomplexity Study Photo Collection

      Stoffle, Richard W.; Van Vlack, Kathleen A.; O’Meara, Nathaniel B.; Martinez, Aja Y.; Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, University of Arizona (Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, University of Arizona, 2013-08-01)
    • The Baking Strength of Arizona Early Baart Flour

      Smith, Margaret Cammack (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1928-07-15)