Now showing items 4591-4610 of 19159

    • C-Terminally Truncated Apolipoprotein A1 Glutamate Residue 243 Is a Biomarker for Oxidative Stress in Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

      Wilson, Zachary; The University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix; Breberda, Christian S. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      High density lipoprotein (HDL) oxidation is a potential biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD) severity. Methionine sulfoxidation, tyrosine chlorination and C-terminal truncation are Apo A- I modifications that inactivate HDL and lead to pro-oxidant action. We hypothesize that C-terminal truncation of apolipoprotein A1 glutamate residue 243 (Apo A-I Des-Q243) is a byproduct of a protease, such as a matrix metalloprotease (MMP), and it is associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 103 patients presenting for evaluation of chest pain in this cross-sectional study at Maricopa Medical Center. Plasma and serum samples were collected, processed, and transferred to Arizona State University (ASU) Biodesign Institute for high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). A statistical analysis was conducted with a spearman’s coefficient, two-tailed linear regression and multivariate analysis of the relative fractional abundance (RFA) of Apo A-I Des-Q243 and clinical variables. Multivariate analysis revealed significantly reduced levels of Apo A-I Des-Q243 in the presence of male gender (-1.5%, P=0.035), atrial fibrillation (-2.8%, P=0.04), and ACEi/ARB use (-2.4%, P=0.001). Additionally, a diagnosis of CKD (2.3%, P=0.037) and the presence of four (9.6%, P=0.005) or five (4.7%, P=0.045) coronary stents, regardless of vessel location, were associated with significantly increased levels of Apo A-I Des-Q243. American Indian/Alaskan race as compared to Caucasian race (Plasma -5.8%, 95% CI -9.9- -1.8%, P=0.005; Serum -4.6%, 95% CI -8.5- -0.8%, P=0.02), and the eGFR (Plasma ρ=-0.024, P=0.014, Serum ρ=-0.291, P=0.003) only reached significance in the linear regression and spearman’s correlation analysis respectively. Apo A-I Des-Q243 is elevated in patients with multiple coronary stents, and thus may be contributing to vascular inflammation and plaque formation. Furthermore, Apo A-I Des-Q243 is elevated in CKD and is directly correlated with its severity as determined by eGFR. These findings highlight the renin-aldosterone system’s (RAS) role in HDL oxidation and the anti-oxidant action of ACEi/ARBs. Apo A-I Des-Q243 appears to be an important link between CAD and CKD and is a promising biomarker that warrants further study.
    • Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: Role In Excessive Cell Growth And Hypertension

      Cohen, Zoe; Carr, Shane Geary (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Hypertension is a widespread disease with over one-third of all US citizens being afflicted. Hypertension significantly increases the likelihood of heart disease, which is the currently leading cause of death in the US. This paper reviews the factors that cause hypertension, such as increased cardiac output, increased stroke volume, increased vessel length, and decreased vessel radius. The second section delves into our research on how excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation contributes to hypertension. We observed that patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) have increased cytosolic calcium concentration in their PASMCs. However, it is unknown how calcium plays a role in this increased proliferation. This study explores our hypothesis that the family of proteins Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases (CaMK) may be the link between calcium and excessive cell proliferation. Our results found that two CaMK proteins, CaMKIV and CaMKII δ, cause increased proliferation and are found at higher concentrations in patients with IPAH. We found that these two CamK proteins are necessary for the increased activity of AKT and PDGFR, two proteins involved in the proliferation pathway. While more research is needed, these results suggest that CaMKIV and CaMKII δ could be targets for the treatment of hypertension.
    • Cabbage Looper, Tobacco Budworm, and Beet Armyworm Larval Mortalities, Development and Foliage Consumption on Bt and Non-Bt Cottons

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; de la Torre, T.; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003-05)
      Tobacco budworm (TBW), Heliothis virescens (F.), larvae were highly susceptible to feeding on Bt cotton leaves or flower buds with 100% and 96% mortality occurring within 4 days, respectively, compared to an average mortality of 95% for cabbage looper (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and 57% for beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), after 14 days feeding on Bt leaves. Larval weights, of CL and BAW after 7, 10, or 14 days of feeding on Bt leaves were lower compared with those feeding on non-Bt cotton leaves. BAW, CL, and TBW larvae consumed significantly less Bt leaf area per feeding day compared with DPL 5415.
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1995/96

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-08)
    • Cabin Sampling Form - Feature 1

      Towner, Ronald H.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, Univ. of Arizona (2010-10-20)
    • Cactus, Agave, Yucca and Ocotillo

      Kelly, Jack; Grumbles, Rob; Plant Sciences, School of (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-04)
    • Cadacous Bract Cotton

      Muramoto, H. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-02)
    • Caducous Bract Cottons

      Muramoto, H.; Sherman, R.; Department of Plant Sciences (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-02)
    • Caducous Bract Hexaploid Cotton

      Muramoto, H.; Sherman, R.; Ledbetter, C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-02)
    • Caja Costarieccence de Seguro Social: A Case Study in Positive Deviance

      de Zapien, Jill; Anako, Chiamaka (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      In this article, the health care system in the country of Costa Rica is critically analyzed. This analysis is performed in an effort to learn about the historical occurrences that led to the development of Costa Rica's' universal healthcare system. The current system, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, is analytically examined. Through this inspection, the problems that are currently being experienced by the country are noted and the missteps of the current leadership, and therefore the program itself, are exposed. Some ways to possibly remedy the challenges of the system are suggested, and practical changes are recommended. Interventions currently in play, as well as those that have been recently implemented are explained as well. Costa Rica's impact on the world stage is noted, and the lessons that the county has learned are suggested as a possible guide to other countries around the globe, whose healthcare systems may also be in flux.
    • Calcium and Calorie Content of Selected Foods

      Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-10)
      Healthy bone growth and maintenance requires adequate calcium intake. You can meet your calcium needs from foods, beverages, and, if necessary, supplements.
    • Calcium and Calorie Content of Selected Foods

      Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Nutritional Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2011-08)
      Healthy bone growth and maintenance requires adequate calcium intake. You can meet your calcium needs from foods, beverages, and if necessary, supplements. This publication contains the calorie and calcium content of some foods from each group of the Food Guide Pyramid which includes bread, cereal, rice, & pasta group; vegetable group; fruit group; milk, yogurt, & cheese group; meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, & nuts group; and fats, oils & sweets.
    • Calcium Supplement Guidelines

      Houtkooper, Linda; Farrell, Vanessa; Nutritional Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2011-01)
    • Calcium Supplement Guidelines

      Houtkooper, Linda; Farrell, Vanessa A. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-07)
      Calcium is an essential mineral found in great abundance in the body. Ninety-nine percent of all the calcium in the body is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining one percent is in the blood. Calcium plays important roles in nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. If calcium levels in the blood drop below normal, calcium will be taken from bone and put into the blood in order to maintain blood calcium levels. Therefore, it is important to consume enough calcium to maintain adequate blood and bone calcium levels. Revised 2017, Revised 2011, Original 2004
    • Calcium: A Simple Guide

      Farrell, Vanessa A.; Nutritional Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2011-01)
      It is important to know how much calcium you need to consume each day as more than 2500 mg of calcium each day can be harmful. Calcium should be obtained from foods and beverages first, then from supplements if necessary. Taking more than 500 mg of calcium at one time should be avoided. If you choose to take a calcium supplement, calcium citrate or calcium carbonate should be chosen.
    • CALCULATING FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT (CMU) WALLS

      Morrison, Clayton; GEREN, REBECCA (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This paper serves as a statement accompanying a capstone project for a degree in Information: Science and Technology. It details the work that went into creating the web page dedicated to helping specifications and codes writers to calculate fire resistance ratings of concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls. It briefly examines what a CMU wall is and the calculations that are involved in calculating fire-resistance ratings. The paper delves into how the site itself works, what the user can expect to see when first accessing the page and how to follow the steps in order to get the correct output. Without getting too technical, the paper also describes the four programming languages that were involved with coding the web page and what they handle in accordance with the page’s design and implementation. Finally, the paper concludes with an appendix containing the URL that will lead the reader to the web calculator and provides some practice problems that will allow the reader to test the calculator’s abilities.
    • Calculating Ventilatory Threshold in Patients After Stroke

      Quezon, Irvin; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Bosch, Pamela (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-06)
      BACKGROUND: Aerobic training intensity is commonly determined from heart rate reserve (HRR) or a percentage of maximal heart rate measured during a graded exercise stress test. This method has limitations in people after stroke, who may not reach maximal heart rate. Ventilatory Threshold (VT) is an alternate method of establishing aerobic training intensity. VT indicates the exercise intensity above which ventilation increases disproportionately compared to whole-body oxygen uptake, theoretically representing the optimal intensity for sustaining aerobic exercise. CONCLUSION: Ventilatory Threshold in stroke patients undergoing treadmill testing can be effectively calculated from gas exchange data using the Venilation Curve and the V-slope methods. More research is needed to assess other factors that may affect VT measurements, such as medications or diseases impacting respiratory and cardiac function in patients with stroke to determine the most optimal and effective means of establishing training intensity after stroke.
    • Calculations of Doppler Radar Velocity Spectrum Parameters for a Mixture of Rain and Hail

      Martner, Brooks E.; Battan, Louis J.; Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1975-02-15)
      The radar reflectivity factors, the reflectivity-weighted mean terminal velocities (VT) and the standard deviations (cr) of the resulting VT Doppler spectra were computed for specified size distributions of rain, dry and wet ice spheres (taken to be hailstones) and rain with hail. Unambiguous estimates of the mean velocity and standard deviation can be obtained from a radar measurement of reflectivity for rain alone and dry ice spheres as a function of maximum sphere size. The results for wet ice spheres are strongly dependent on the thickness of the liquid water coating on the ice core. When rain and hail coexist, large values of reflectivity are associated with large ranges of VT and crv. If the shape of the hail size distribution is known, an independent measurement of the maximwn hailstone diameter or a knowledge of the standard deviation of the observed Doppler velocity spectrum can reduce the uncertainty in estimates of VT.
    • Calculations of Mie Back-Scattering from Melting Ice Spheres

      Herman, Benjamin M.; Battan, Louis J.; Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1960-09-01)