• Faculty Senate Minutes February 4, 2019

      University of Arizona Faculty Senate (University of Arizona Faculty Senate (Tucson, AZ), 2019-02-04)
    • Social Determinants of Latina/o Sleep Health: Insights and Implications for Behavioral Interventions

      Alcántara, Carmela; Columbia University (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2019-01-25)
      Sleep is increasingly recognized as an important behavioral and public health issue for all in the United States (US). Yet, Latina/o sleep health is understudied despite the fact that Latina/os compose 16.3% of the US population, and that sleep problems are prevalent among Latina/os. Additionally, racial/ethnic and language-based disparities in access to safe and effective behavioral health interventions for prevalent sleep-wake disorders persist. In this talk, I will draw from frameworks in psychology, public health, social work, and medicine to discuss recent evidence from my program of research on the relative association of sociocultural stressors and general psychosocial stress with various dimensions of subjectively- and objectively-measured sleep among Latina/os, and discuss implications for behavioral sleep intervention science. Second, I will describe formative work behind an ongoing mixed-methods Hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial that tests a culturally adapted self-guided digital version of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia versus usual care in Spanish-speaking Latina/o primary care patients. Finally, I will conclude by discussing future mechanistic and ecological research on the bi-directional relationships between sleep, stress, and self-regulatory processes among Latina/os.
    • “WHY Stay?”

      Byrne, Kevin; Esposito, Victoria (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      “Why Stay” is a play about an abusive relationship from the end to the beginning. People often ask women or men who have been in abusive relationships, “Why stay?” By showing a relationship in reverse chronological order, the intent of the piece was to delve into that question and show a new perspective. This piece was created by interviewing women who are currently or have been in domestically abusive relationships. By using their answers, the main two characters were then crafted. The piece culminated in a staged reading and was attending by faculty and students from the school of theatre, film and television. This piece is important because Tucson is a community with Emerge, a domestic abuse shelter, and yet people are not comfortable discussing their situations. They often feel ashamed of their past, so this play is a chance to change that perception.
    • Virtual Mapping Of Data Centers With Robots

      Redford, Gary; Allred, Coby Christopher (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of the Virtual Mapping of Data Centers project is to create an imaging system designed to be mounted on top of an autonomous mobile platform that will create a virtual tour of Microsoft data centers. The imaging system will create a 360° “street view” that is designed to aid technicians in recognizing problems and to give tours to visitors without taking them inside the harsh environments that are common in data centers. It will also provide the option of streaming a live video feed for troubleshooting problems remotely. The system created by the Virtual Mapping of Data Centers project team will be mounted on an autonomous robot, Compact Autonomous Telemetry (CAT), designed and build by a previous senior design team. It will leverage this platform to autonomously navigate and map data centers with the designed imaging system, ensuring that technicians have easy access to what is happening inside of their data center.
    • Education And Indigenous Language Revitalization In The American Southwest

      Fountain, Amy; Casey, Karina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      United States federal and state-level policies restricting the use of languages in public schools have negatively impacted the use of Indigenous languages and the overall education and wellbeing of Native Americans. Policies such as the boarding school era of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as more recent decisions such as Arizona’s “English for the Children” act and “No Child Left Behind,” have claimed to assist Native American children but instead had measurable negative effects on their education. Meanwhile, Native groups across the Southwest have undertaken their own language revitalization and immersion programs, from Rock Point’s immersion program in Diné Bizaad to smaller programs such as the summer camps of the Pueblo communities. When Native groups make their own choices in leading their language and teaching their children, there are measurable positive effects both in language use and in students’ overall school performance.
    • Implementing Predictive Policing: A Policy Analysis Approach

      Boustead, Anne E.; Guzman, Samantha Grace (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Predictive policing techniques have grown rapidly in both sophistication and use over the past decade; yet, there is a large amount of legal and public pushback against the concept. This thesis aims to address privacy, equity and efficacy concerns by examining the accuracy and fairness of existing predictive policing mechanisms. After providing a background on both conventional and predictive policing methods, I then introduce a framework of best practices for predictive policing implementation for policy-makers and police departments to follow. To provide examples of the framework in action, I describe how various departments have implemented predictive policing and discuss the implications of such. Finally, the paper concludes with overall policy recommendations and key takeaways for future use of predictive policing technology.
    • Virtual Mapping Of Data Centers With Robots

      Redford, Gary; Avila, Rigoberto, Jr. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this project was to virtually map the inside of Microsoft’s data centers using robots. This final report serves to provide information on setup of the system. Additionally, it gives details on testing procedures and the results of those testing procedures. The report also presents the various models that were used in initially creating the data center mapping system. Ultimately, the senior design team was able to put together a fully functional data center mapping system with live stream capabilities, functioning telemetry support, and 360 degree panoramic of the mapping locations
    • Frangible Bearing Support High-Cycle Fatigue Test Rig

      Redford, Gary; Bernas, Olivia Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Our project goal was to design, build, and test a functional test rig that would simulate high-cycle fatigue icing conditions on a turbofan engine frangible bearing support (FBS). The FBS is a turbofan engine component designed to break under extreme conditions, such as fan blade-out, to prevent damage to the main structure of the engine. It must, however, be able to withstand icing loads, which are less extreme. Icing loads occur when condensation gathers and freezes inside the engine, creating an imbalance on the main shaft and imparting a rotating load on the FBS. The FBS was recently redesigned to meet a stricter icing life requirement of 5,000 pounds radial load for 30 million cycles. Our new test rig design simulates high-cycle fatigue under icing conditions. The cycle count for this test was adjusted to 100,000 cycles with a rotating load of 8,500 pounds, applied radially outward on the inner cylindrical wall of the FBS. The test rig applied the load through the use of two actuators with connections to a puck in the center of the FBS. The test rig was designed to last 250,000 cycles so it can test both the original and redesigned FBS.
    • Robotic Gait Simulator

      Redford, Gary; Osorio, Miguel Angel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Continuing the evolution of orthopaedic solutions to common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries results in the need for increasingly complex and physiologically accurate models of human movement. As such, lower limb cadaveric simulators are suitable for investigating the biomechanics of the foot/ankle in a controlled, clinical setting and provide insightful information to the researchers concerning gait cycles. The interdisciplinary team was tasked with modifying an existing Robotic Gait Simulator (RGS) in order to enhance the capabilities of the previous model. The solutions are implemented easily and designed to interface with the current system. These include: additional tendon simulators – linear actuators – and replacement with more robust versions – capable of delivering larger forces at higher speeds – , updated load cells and electronics, a Guided User Interface (GUI) to operate the system, modifications to the aluminum frame to accommodate the supplemented tendons, a “flange” designed to maintained correct tendon-pull direction, and a friction-power treadmill to provide ground reaction forces of the foot/ankle model during varying gait. The finalized RGS was successfully built and tested with approximated tendon-force curves developed via a MATLAB program. The analysis showed promising results and its modular design opened the possibility of future enhancements.
    • Robotic Gait Simulator

      Redford, Gary; Thurgood, Harrison Taylor (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The continuing evolution of orthopaedic solutions to common foot and ankle problems means engineers and clinicians need increasingly complex and physiologically correct models of human movement. The design uses new parts and improved methods designed to interface with current machines and operating procedures that simulate the movement of human walking. The team added three additional tendons to the foot-ankle model and replaced the current tendon actuators with more robust models, capable of larger forces and faster movement. These additional tendons resulted in the design, validation and implementation of additional actuators, load cells and accompanying electronics. Adding these components required designing a spacing flange to maintain physiologically accurate tendon pull direction while providing the necessary space for the movement systems. The team overhauled the electrical system so it could provide necessary power to all components. The sponsor can use these new additions to the robotic gait simulator to better model orthopaedic solutions to gait defects, such as poor posture and injury.
    • NASA Challenge: Conversion Of CO2 To Glucose

      Ogden, Greg; Headley, Ryan James (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Utilizing physicochemical and catalytic reactions, our team developed a non-biological process and scalable apparatus to produce selected carbon-based sugar molecules using only CO2 as a carbon source. The process consists of a multi-step reaction pathway in which carbon dioxide molecules are photochemically converted to formaldehyde, and then catalyzed via a formose reaction scheme to produce four to seven carbon sugars. Complex sugars such as D-Glucose and 6-carbon sugars (hexoses) are considered most desirable by NASA; therefore, the process also includes a separation phase in which 6-carbon and 7-carbon chains are output as products and smaller molecules are recycled as substrates to the formose reaction to form longer carbon chains. Multiple alternatives were evaluated to determine reaction conditions which produced the greatest yield and efficiency. The system was designed to have low power, mass, and volume requirements and to be feasible for potential future space missions.
    • QR Codes For Good

      Redford, Gary; Miner, Corey Justin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This project is a payment transaction system based on QR codes. The purpose of the project is to create a system where you can donate to homeless people electronically. 70% of people today no longer carry cash, so homeless people are no longer getting the donations that they once got. Using QR codes, the homeless person can go to the public library and print a QR code, and then any person who wants to donate only needs to scan the QR code to donate. By having the money electronically, by partnering with homeless shelters or EBT program, the recipient of the donation can be restricted in what they can purchase. Not allowing them to buy alcohol or drugs can make people donating feel better about their donations as well. Overall, people are donating less and cash can be spent anywhere, but with this project, donations can be sent quickly and painlessly through a QR code.
    • Background Characterization In The 4top Search At The ATLAS Experiment

      Varnes, Erich; Stoken, Alex Harrison (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      A data-driven approach is taken to estimate the background and find optimal cuts for the four-top-quark search at the ATLAS Experiment for √s=13 TeV. Using 140fb-1 of data generated from the Large Hadron Collider from 2015 through 2018, the Monte Carlo simulated background is reweighted by a function of HTall to match the distribution of data. This correction function is then used to build MC signal and background distributions. To ding the best region to search for the four-top signal, the significance of the signal to background is measured for various lower bounds, and the optimal selection criteria of Nbjets>2 jets, Njets>9 jets, HTall>660000 MeV, and jetpt>60000 MeV are chosen. These cuts produce a significance of 1.0077 and yield 60.22 expected signal events and 3511 expected background events in the data sample.
    • A Virtual Reality System For Realistic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training

      Redford, Gary; Bergeron, Hannah Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Introduction: In the United States, more than 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur annually. CPR, while lifesaving, needs to be performed accurately to be effective. This study aims to implement virtual reality (VR) with wearable sensors to measure compression acceleration, frequency, and depth while providing real-time feedback to the user for immersive and effective CPR training. Materials and Methods: VR scenarios were customized in Unity video game engine to serve as the user interface and feedback environment. An HTC Vive VR system immersed the user into a real-world CPR scenario while an HTC Vive tracker tracked the position of a CPR mannequin in VR. An MPU6050 accelerometer was programmed with an Arduino Micro to process compression acceleration data. Leap motion hand tracking technology was utilized to track the user’s hand position. Speech recognition was implemented to recognize key phrases, such as “call 911,” spoken by the user to a non-playable character in the VR scenario. Quantitative and qualitative performance feedback was provided to the user in the form of visual and auditory cues to correct CPR compressions. Conclusions: This system is an innovative proof of concept for a VR-based CPR training system that can provide compression feedback for high quality CPR.
    • Autonomous Greenhouse Watering System

      Redford, Gary; Bebongchu, Syntia Nkemzi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This report is responsible for presenting a greenhouse smart watering (GrowSmart) system in critical detail. This document will also discuss the reason for such a design, design subassemblies and their functionality, design models and analysis, software algorithm, subassembly tests, and results. The scope of this project is to design, build and test a fully autonomous greenhouse watering system that utilizes a cloud database to interpret and write crop data. The purpose of the project is to simplify crop growth. Challenges with greenhouse systems involve intense labor and severe inconsistencies with the human component of crop watering. The GrowSmart system will monitor and record sensory feedback using a cloud-based data storage.
    • System On A Chip Video Encoding System

      Redford, Gary; Oura, Kaitlyn Akiko (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      PROJECT GOAL: To evaluate the performance and demonstrate the video encoding/decoding capabilities of the Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ Multi-Processor System on Chip (MPSoC) device. The project tests the performance of the MPSoC device by running software that serves as a benchmark to compare with a contemporary device. The software consists of an algorithm that uses cross-correlation for signal detection. The system demonstration has signals feeding into the algorithm coming from a directional antenna that detects wifi signals. The result of the cross-correlation software as well as video feed from a camera are displayed on a monitor to visualize the signal strength at a specific location. The benchmark software uses math functions ported over from the contemporary device to ensure an accurate performance comparison between the new and current systems. The benchmark software measured the total elapsed time taken to correlate one million input signals with one reference signal. The results from this test were delivered to General Dynamics Mission Systems to have the comparison of the devices done internally to see if the MPSoC device should be considered for future products.
    • Vehicle Detection For Cyclist Safety

      Redford, Gary; Purdy, Ruben (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This document contains the final results of Senior Design Project 18037: Vehicle Detection for Cyclist Safety. In the following sections, we present a deep neural network enabled vehicle detection system which can be run in real time on self-contained, portable computer hardware, which in turn can be attached to a bicycle. We outline the architecture of our system, and then provide technical details of both the software and mechanical design in a technical data package. Furthermore, we detail the procedure and results of the analyses and tests performed on the system. Lastly, we present our final budget and reflect on the lessons learned during this project.
    • The Biogeography Of Diel Patterns In Herpetofauna

      Wiens, John; Runnion, Emily (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Animal activity varies greatly during daylight and nighttime hours, with species ranging from strictly diurnal or nocturnal, to cathemeral or crepuscular. Which of these categories a species falls into may be determined by a variety of factors, including temperature, and biogeographic location. In this study I analyzed diel activity patterns at 13 sites distributed around the world, encompassing a total of 901 species of reptile and amphibians. I compared these activity patterns to the absolute latitudes of each site and modeled diel behavior as a function of distance from the equator. I found that latitude does correlate with the presence of nocturnal snake and lizard species. However, I did not find significant results correlating latitude to any other reptile or amphibian lineage.
    • Analysis Of The Relation Between Snow Water Equivalent In The Upper Colorado River Basin And Naturalized Flow In The Colorado River

      Whitaker, Martha P.L.; Potteiger, Samuel Edwin, IV (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Colorado River is one of the most important rivers in the world, supplying water to 40 million people in seven states in the United States, and two states in Mexico. However, the river is threatened by impending climate change which may limit the availability of water resources in the basin. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relation between average snow water equivalent (SWE) and naturalized flow in the Colorado River. Data were analyzed from the high- resolution University of Arizona SWE product (Dawson et al., 2018) over the Upper Colorado River Basin and compared to naturalized flow in the Colorado River at Lee’s Ferry. A Pearson correlation test was then performed on the five-year moving averages of each dataset to establish the statistical relation between the two continuous variables. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.90, which indicates a strong positive correlation between SWE and naturalized flow. Additional correlation tests were performed on the raw (unaveraged) data to further characterize this association and explore the potential for seasonal flow forecasting. SWE data were analyzed when unlagged, and then lagged one to three months. The correlation tests resulted in coefficients of 0.10 when unlagged to 0.80 at three months.