AffiliationEdwards Air Force Base
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AbstractThe Edwards Digital Switch (EDS) provides mission critical voice and time-spaceposition information (TSPI) communication switching capability to the Edwards Test Range. The present system has been in operation for about 10 years. The core of this system is based on widely used commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) time-slot interchange switches that were designed for a 40-year service life. The application layers of the system, comprising the command/control elements and the communications and user interfaces, were custom developed by the prime contractor to satisfy the performance requirements of the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). Problems with the current system include difficulty in obtaining replacement items for equipment developed by the prime contractor and higher than expected failure rates for this equipment. Based on experience, the service life for the equipment developed by the prime contractor appears to be about 15 years. Another problem is that lower cost packet switches are taking market share from the more traditional time-slot interchange switches. This factor tends to accelerate the obsolescence of the existing COTS equipment. Solutions are being investigated to update or replace the EDS. One solution is to reuse the existing COTS core equipment and replace the present application layers, preferably with COTS. Another solution is to replace the entire system with COTS or vendormodified COTS hardware and software.
SponsorsInternational Foundation for Telemetering
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ASSESSMENT OF PHOTONIC SWITCHES AS FUTURE REPLACEMENT FOR ELECTRONIC CROSS-CONNECT SWITCHESYoussef, Ahmed H.; TYBRIN Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)This paper presents the future of optical networking via photonic switches as a potential replacement for the existing electronic cross-connects. Although optical amplifiers are now mainstream and wave division multiplexing (WDM) systems are a commercial reality, the industry’s long-term vision is one of the all-optical network. This will require optical switching equipment such as all-optical or “photonic” cross-connect switches that will provide packet switching at an optical layer. Currently, as voice calls or data traffic are routed throughout Range and commercial networks, the information can travel through many fiber-optic segments which are linked together using electronic cross-connects. However, this electronic portion of the network is the bottleneck that is preventing the ideal network from achieving optimal speeds. Information is converted from light into an electronic signal, routed to the next circuit pathway, then converted back into light as it travels to the next network destination. In an all-optical network, the electronics are removed from the equation, eliminating the need to convert the signals and thereby significantly improving network performance and throughput. Removing the electronics improves network reliability and restoration speeds in the event of an outage, provides greater flexibility in network provisioning, and provides a smooth transition when migrating to future optical transmission technologies. Despite the fact that photonic switching remains uncommercialized, it now seems apparent that the core switches in both the public networks and DoD Range networks of the early 21st century will probably carry ATM cells over a photonic switching fabric.
D230N-Tm Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy and the Role of Fetal cTnT Isoform Switching in Modulating Disease SeverityLynn, Melissa L. (The University of Arizona., 2017)In 1980, the World Health Organization task force first sought to define and classify cardiomyopathies. They defined cardiomyopathies as "heart muscle diseases of unknown cause" with three main classifications including: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy . Over the next three decades it became patently obvious that this simple definition was not sufficient to describe the complex heterogeneity of diseases present in the patient population. More robust definitions were necessary for mechanistic links to be established and meaningful therapeutics to be developed. Since then the accepted definition of a cardiomyopathy has evolved and the classifications have greatly expanded. The most recent definition from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology states: Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not invariably) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and are due to a variety of causes that frequently are genetic. Cardiomyopathies either are confined to the heart or are part of generalized systemic disorders, often leading to cardiovascular death or progressive heart failure–related disability . This latest definition (2006) reflects the growing recognition of molecular genetics as a key factor in the development of cardiomyopathies and highlights the ever-growing complexity of disease classification. Today the genetic basis of HCM and DCM is widely recognized yet our understanding of the precise mechanisms underlying the disease remains unclear. To add to this disconnect, by the time patients become symptomatic, pathology has progressed past the initial phase, where meaningful treatment could occur, to advanced end-stage pathology. By this time often the only treatment options available become "blunt sword" therapeutics that are non-specific and used primarily for symptom management. In fact, over the last 3 decades there has been a marked decline in the innovation of cardiovascular pharmaceuticals owed partially to the vast complexity of disease presentation and progression . In this dissertation, I will focus on a genetic sarcomeric DCM caused by a mutation in alpha-tropomyosin (Tm). Using novel accurate mouse models as a tool we will define the mechanism by which it leads to disease, investigate how disease severity due to the mutation is modified in an age-dependent manner, and examine what this mechanism could mean in the larger picture of cardiomyopathic disease progression. I hope to convince you that by using accurate models of this DCM at multiple levels of biological complexity to tease out the precise mechanisms of disease we can establish meaningful genotype-phenotype relationships that could lead to the development of specific novel therapeutics.
DEVELOPMENT OF A FREQUENCY-SWITCHED LASER FOR INFRARED TIME RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY.SCOTTI, RONALD EDWARD. (The University of Arizona., 1982)The objective of this thesis is to describe the development, construction and use of a new tool for optical coherent transient spectroscopy. The new tool is a frequency-switched CO₂ laser. A highly stable laser design was modified to include an intra cavity electro-optic modulator, which al lows the output of the laser to be frequency-switched. The frequency modulated output is used in spectroscopic experiments whose goals are the determination of decay rates for infrared moIecuIar transitions. The use of a frequency-switched laser is the most prom i sing means of making such measurements on nonpoIar molecules. The use of an electro-optic crystal inside a laser cavity introduces a number of fundamental problems which must be overcome before the instrument can be used to make useful spectroscopic measurements. These problems are brought about by the need for a stable laser amplitude and frequency output. The development of a novel stabilization technique to overcome these problems is documented in this thesis. Also included in this thesis is a description of the microcomputer and associated electronics necessary to integrate the laser into an experimental apparatus capable of performing signal averaging and background subtraction on raw time resolved data. The final chapters of this work describe experiments and results of measurements of the scattering cross sect ions of a nonpolar molecule with rare gas perturbers. The nonpolar molecule is SF₆ and the rare gas collision partners are Helium, Argon, and Xenon. The results indicate that the scattering cross section for state changing collisions displays a mass dependance predicted by classical collision theory. However, the measured cross sections for elastic velocity-changing collisions appears to be mass independent, which is at variance with theory.