HIGH PERFORMANCE SATELLITE RANGING TECHNIQUE UTILIZING A FLEXIBLE RANGING SIGNAL WAVEFORM
KeywordsRanging signal bandwidth occupancy
Ranging signal acquisition time
Ranging accuracy and precision
Mutual interference with other uplink/downlink signals
Digital Signal Processing
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AbstractRange to an orbiting satellite from a ground reference point (ground station) can be determined by measuring the round trip time for a waveform transmitted to the satellite and returned to the ground station (Turnaround Ranging) and more recently by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper first summarizes and compares the two approaches. The paper then describes and analyzes a new turn-around ranging system which uses a flexible ranging waveform that provides spectral compatibility with existing Military, NASA, and Commercial satellite uplink/downlink signals.
SponsorsInternational Foundation for Telemetering
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SIGNAL PROCESSING IN THE PRESENCE OF SIGNAL-DEPENDENT NOISEThunen, John G. (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1971-03-15)The significance of signal-dependent noise is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the type of multiplicative noise present in the density variations in a photographic emulsion. A theoretical treatment of the effect of multiplicative noise on signal detection and signal discrimination problems is presented. Optimum test statistics are derived for processing a sampled message to detect the presence of a known signal. Multiplicative noise described by Poisson and Gaussian statistics is considered. The expressions are extended to include the two-signal discrimination problem. Two-dimensional signal fields in the presence of multiplicative noise are simulated in a computer and processed for optimum signal detection according to the two derived methods. These results are compared to the results of processing based on the assumption of stationary noise statistics. This comparison reveals that modest improvements (20% to 30% reduction in false alarm rate) are obtained when the signal-dependent nature of the noise statistics is considered. The effects of signal-to-noise ratio, signal structure, and changing background level are also investigated. An example of optimum signal discrimination using circles and squares as signals in multiplicative noise is reported. An improvement in the percentage of correctly identified signals is again observed when the proper test statistic is used. Two examples of signal filtering in the presence of signal-dependent noise are included. The first concerns the processing of a real star field to determine the location of weak stars. The second is an illustration of the signal information contained in the noise spectrum of a message recorded on a common photographic film.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIGNAL PROCESSING IN RADON SPACE (OPTICAL SIGNAL, IMAGE PROCESSING, FOURIER TRANSFORMS).Barrett, Harrison H.; EASTON, ROGER LEE, JR. (The University of Arizona., 1986)This dissertation considers a method for processing two-dimensional (2-D) signals (e.g. imagery) by transformation to a coordinate space where the 2-D operation separates into orthogonal 1-D operations. After processing, the 2-D output is reconstructed by a second coordinate transformation. This approach is based on the Radon transform, which maps a two-dimensional Cartesian representation of a signal into a series of one-dimensional signals by line-integral projection. The mathematical principles of this transformation are well-known as the basis for medical computed tomography. This approach can process signals more rapidly than conventional digital processing and more flexibly and precisely than optical techniques. A new formulation of the Radon transform is introduced that employs a new transformation--the central-slice transform--to symmetrize the operations between the Cartesian and Radon representations of the signal and to aid in analyzing operations that may be susceptible to solution in this manner. It is well-known that 2-D Fourier transforms and convolutions can be performed by 1-D operations after Radon transformation, as proven by the central-slice and filter theorems. Demonstrations of these operations via Radon transforms are described. An optical system has been constructed to derive the line-integral projections of 2-D transmissive or reflective input data. Fourier transforms of the projections are derived by a surface-acoustic-wave chirp Fourier transformer, and filtering is performed in a surface-acoustic-wave convolver. Reconstruction of the processed 2-D signal is performed optically. The system can process 2-D imagery at approximately 5 frames/second, though rates to 30 frames/second are achievable if a faster image rotator is added. Other signal processing operations in Radon space are demonstrated, including Labeyrie stellar speckle interferometry, the Hartley transform, and the joint coordinate-frequency representations such as the Wigner distribution function. Other operations worthy of further study include derivation of the 2-D cepstrum, and several spectrum estimation algorithms.
Instability in a coiled-coil signaling helix is conserved for signal transduction in soluble guanylyl cyclaseWeichsel, Andrzej; Kievenaar, Jessica A; Curry, Roslyn; Croft, Jacob T; Montfort, William R; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (WILEY, 2019-10-01)How nitric oxide (NO) activates its primary receptor, α1/β1 soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC or GC‐1), remains unknown. Likewise, how stimulatory compounds enhance sGC activity is poorly understood, hampering development of new treatments for cardiovascular disease. NO binding to ferrous heme near the N‐terminus in sGC activates cyclase activity near the C‐terminus, yielding cGMP production and physiological response. CO binding can also stimulate sGC, but only weakly in the absence of stimulatory small‐molecule compounds, which together lead to full activation. How ligand binding enhances catalysis, however, has yet to be discovered. Here, using a truncated version of sGC from Manduca sexta, we demonstrate that the central coiled‐coil domain, the most highly conserved region of the ~150,000 Da protein, not only provides stability to the heterodimer but is also conformationally active in signal transduction. Sequence conservation in the coiled coil includes the expected heptad‐repeating pattern for coiled‐coil motifs, but also invariant positions that disfavor coiled‐coil stability. Full‐length coiled coil dampens CO affinity for heme, while shortening of the coiled coil leads to enhanced CO binding. Introducing double mutation αE447L/βE377L, predicted to replace two destabilizing glutamates with leucines, lowers CO binding affinity while increasing overall protein stability. Likewise, introduction of a disulfide bond into the coiled coil results in reduced CO affinity. Taken together, we demonstrate that the heme domain is greatly influenced by coiled‐coil conformation, suggesting communication between heme and catalytic domains is through the coiled coil. Highly conserved structural imperfections in the coiled coil provide needed flexibility for signal transduction.