Peroxynitrite formation and sinusoidal endothelial cell injury during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice
AffiliationDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
Liver Research Institute, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Room 6309, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Arizona 85724, USA
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CitationComparative Hepatology 2004, 3(Suppl 1):S46 http://www.comparative-hepatology.com/content/3/S1/S46
Rights© Knight and Jaeschke; licensee BioMed Central Ltd 2004.
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AbstractINTRODUCTION:Vascular injury and accumulation of red blood cells in the space of Disse (hemorrhage) is a characteristic feature of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism of nonparenchymal cell injury is unclear. Therefore, the objective was to investigate if either Kupffer cells or intracellular events in endothelial cells are responsible for the cell damage.RESULTS:Acetaminophen treatment (300 mg/kg) caused vascular nitrotyrosine staining within 1 h. Vascular injury (hemorrhage) occurred between 2 and 4 h. This paralleled the time course of parenchymal cell injury as shown by the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase activities. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride (10 mg/kg) had no significant effect on vascular nitrotyrosine staining, hemorrhage or parenchymal cell injury. In contrast, treatment with allopurinol (100 mg/kg), which prevented mitochondrial injury in hepatocytes, strongly attenuated vascular nitrotyrosine staining and injury.CONCLUSIONS:Our data do not support the hypothesis that acetaminophen-induced superoxide release leading to vascular peroxynitrite formation and endothelial cell injury is caused by activated Kupffer cells. In contrast, the protective effect of allopurinol treatment suggests that, similar to the mechanism in parenchymal cells, mitochondrial oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be critical for vascular injury after acetaminophen overdose.
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