Identification of novel DNA methylation inhibitors via a two-component reporter gene system
AffiliationHuman Epigenomics Center, Department of Life Science, Institute of Molecular Biology and Institute of Biomedical Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 621, Taiwan
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Southwest Comprehensive Center for Drug Discovery and Development, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Human Cancer Genetics Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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CitationLin et al. Journal of Biomedical Science 2011, 18:3 http://www.jbiomedsci.com/content/18/1/3
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Rights© 2011 Lin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
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AbstractBACKGROUND:Targeting abnormal DNA methylation represents a therapeutically relevant strategy for cancer treatment as demonstrated by the US Food and Drug Administration approval of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. But their use is associated with increased incidences of bone marrow suppression. Alternatively, procainamide has emerged as a potential DNA demethylating agent for clinical translation. While procainamide is much safer than 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, it requires high concentrations to be effective in DNA demethylation in suppressing cancer cell growth. Thus, our laboratories have embarked on the pharmacological exploitation of procainamide to develop potent DNA methylation inhibitors through lead optimization.METHODS:We report the use of a DNA methylation two-component enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter system as a screening platform to identify novel DNA methylation inhibitors from a compound library containing procainamide derivatives.RESULTS:A lead agent IM25, which exhibits substantially higher potency in GSTp1 DNA demethylation with lower cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells relative to procainamide and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, was identified by the screening platform.CONCLUSIONS:Our data provide a proof-of-concept that procainamide could be pharmacologically exploited to develop novel DNA methylation inhibitors, of which the translational potential in cancer therapy/prevention is currently under investigation.
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