Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Mait
dc.contributor.authorKivisild, Toomas
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Ene
dc.contributor.authorParik, Juri
dc.contributor.authorHudjashov, Georgi
dc.contributor.authorKaldma, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorSerk, Piia
dc.contributor.authorKarmin, Monika
dc.contributor.authorBehar, Doron
dc.contributor.authorGilbert, M. T.
dc.contributor.authorEndicott, Phillip
dc.contributor.authorMastana, Sarabjit
dc.contributor.authorPapiha, Surinder
dc.contributor.authorSkorecki, Karl
dc.contributor.authorTorroni, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorVillems, Richard
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T09:05:41Z
dc.date.available2016-05-20T09:05:41Z
dc.date.issued2004en
dc.identifier.citationBMC Genetics 2004, 5:26 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-26en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1471-2156-5-26en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610388
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be contextualized within the phylogeography of the neighboring regional mtDNA variation. Accordingly, we have analyzed mtDNA control and coding region variation in 796 Indian (including both tribal and caste populations from different parts of India) and 436 Iranian mtDNAs. The results were integrated and analyzed together with published data from South, Southeast Asia and West Eurasia.RESULTS:Four new Indian-specific haplogroup M sub-clades were defined. These, in combination with two previously described haplogroups, encompass approximately one third of the haplogroup M mtDNAs in India. Their phylogeography and spread among different linguistic phyla and social strata was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of the Iranian mtDNA pool revealed patterns of limited reciprocal gene flow between Iran and the Indian sub-continent and allowed the identification of different assemblies of shared mtDNA sub-clades.CONCLUSIONS:Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/5/26en
dc.rights© 2004 Metspalu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0).en
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
dc.titleMost of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humansen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2156en
dc.contributor.departmentInstitute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Tartu University, Tartu, Estoniaen
dc.contributor.departmentBruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israelen
dc.contributor.departmentDipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italyen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdomen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdomen
dc.contributor.departmentEcology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentHenry Wellcome Ancient Biomolecules Centre, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS,United Kingdomen
dc.identifier.journalBMC Geneticsen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-06T02:10:45Z
html.description.abstractBACKGROUND:Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be contextualized within the phylogeography of the neighboring regional mtDNA variation. Accordingly, we have analyzed mtDNA control and coding region variation in 796 Indian (including both tribal and caste populations from different parts of India) and 436 Iranian mtDNAs. The results were integrated and analyzed together with published data from South, Southeast Asia and West Eurasia.RESULTS:Four new Indian-specific haplogroup M sub-clades were defined. These, in combination with two previously described haplogroups, encompass approximately one third of the haplogroup M mtDNAs in India. Their phylogeography and spread among different linguistic phyla and social strata was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of the Iranian mtDNA pool revealed patterns of limited reciprocal gene flow between Iran and the Indian sub-continent and allowed the identification of different assemblies of shared mtDNA sub-clades.CONCLUSIONS:Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent.


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Name:
1471-2156-5-26.pdf
Size:
2.894Mb
Format:
PDF

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

© 2004 Metspalu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2004 Metspalu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0).