• Rainfall estimation from satellite infrared imagery using artificial neural networks

      Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gao, Xiaogang; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997)
      Infrared (IR) imagery collected by geostationary satellites provides useful information about the dirunal evolution of cloud systems. These IR images can be analyzed to indicate the location of clouds as well as the pattern of cloud top temperatures (Tbs). During the past several decades, a number of different approaches for estimation of rainfall rate (RR) from Tb have been explored and concluded that the Tb-RR relationship is (1) highly nonlinear, and (2) seasonally and regionally dependent. Therefore, to properly model the relationship, the model must be able to: (1) detect and identify a non-linear mapping of the Tb-RR relationship; (2) Incorporate information about various cloud properties extracted from IR image; (3) Use feedback obtained from RR observations to adaptively adjust to seasonal and regional variations; and (4) Effectively and efficiently process large amounts of satellite image data in real -time. In this study, a kind of artificial neural network (ANN), called Modified Counter Propagation Network (MCPN), that incorporates these features, has been developed. The model was calibrated using the data around the Japanese Islands provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) First Algorithm Intercomparison Project (AIP-I). Validation results over the Japanese Islands and Florida peninsula show that by providing limited ground-truth observation, the MCPN model is effective in monthly and hourly rainfall estimation. Comparison of results from MCPN model and GOES Precipitation Index (GPI) approach is also provided in the study.

      Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      A new algorithm is proposed for the identification of three-layer feedforward artificial neural networks. The algorithm, entitled LLSSIM, partitions the weight space into two major groups: the input- hidden and hidden -output weights. The input- hidden weights are trained using a multi -start SIMPLEX algorithm and the hidden -output weights are identified using a conditional linear- least- square estimation approach. Architectural design is accomplished by progressive addition of nodes to the hidden layer. The LLSSIM approach provides globally superior weight estimates with fewer function evaluations than the conventional back propagation (BPA) and adaptive back propagation (ABPA) strategies. Monte -carlo testing on the XOR problem, two function approximation problems, and a rainfall- runoff modeling problem show LLSSIM to be more effective, efficient and stable than BPA and ABPA.