• Evaluation of flood forecasting-response systems

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-01)
      The value of a forecast system in preventing urban property damage depends on the accuracy of the forecasts, the time at which they are received, the response by the floodplain dweller and the êfficacy of that response. A systems model of the overall flood forecast -response system is developed. Evaluation of the system is accomplished by a decision theoretic methodology. A case study is done for Milton, Pennsylvania, which evaluates the present system and potential changes to it. It is concluded that the sequential nature of the forecast sequence must be considered in modeling the flood forecast -response system if a meaningful evaluation of the economic value of the system is to be obtained. Methodology for obtaining the parameterization of the model from the available data is given. Computer programs have been written to handle a good portion of the calculations. While more work is needed on obtaining accurate parameterization of certain parts of the model, such as the actual response to forecasts; use of the procedures and programs as they now stand produces reasonable evaluations.
    • Evaluation of flood forecasting-response systems II

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Davis, Donald Ross; Ferrell, William R.; Hosne-Sanaye, Simin; Perry, Scott E.; Rototham, Hugh B.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-01)
      system model and computational methodology have been developed which evaluate the worth of flood forecast - response systems in reducing the economic damage caused by floods. The efficiencies of the forecast system, the response system, and the overall system may be individually obtained and compared. In this report the case study of Milton, Pennsylvania, was extended and further case studies were performed including a large residential section of Victoria, Texas, and all the residences in Columbus, Mississippi. These locations show better forecast and response efficiencies than obtained for Milton, Pennsylvania. The difference is attributed to longer forecast lead times at Columbus and Victoria. Sensitivity analyses were run at all three locations. These show the effects of many system factors, such as the time required to produce, disseminate and respond to a forecast, on the efficiency of the system. The forecast efficiency improves significantly as these times are reduced. Further analysis of the response system based on human factors involved has led to the development of a simulation model of the process by which the floodplain dweller determines the appropriate response to a flood warning. Investigation of ways to extend the methodology to evaluate regions lacking the detailed data used for the case studies has indicated more problems than answers. Extrapolation based on overall system efficiency related to published regional and national flood damage estimates was used to provide an approximate value of the flood forecast - response system for two regions and for the nation.A listing of simplicities and approximations which make computations tractable but which may affect accuracy is given. Finally, an evaluation of the work accomplished for this project and suggestions for the constructive use of the flood forecast -response system model and computational procedures is given.
    • Preference Criterion and Group Utility Model for Reservoir Control Under Uncertainty

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-03)
      From the standpoint of real -time reservoir operation, the multipurpose control problem may be reduced to a dual purpose problem of (1) flood control under uncertain inflow and (2) conservation control (water supply, power generation, low flow augmentation, recreation, etc.) after the flood has receded. A preference criterion for real -time flood control under the conditions of uncertainty is developed in accordance with three postulates: (1) The input to the control process is a probabilistic forecast of the inflow hydrograph, (2) The control decisions are based upon the decision maker's value judgments concerning preferences over operating attributes, trade -offs between reservóir purposes, and attitude toward risk. (3) The conservation control is imbedded into the flood control through the attribute space of the preference criterion allowing thus for explicit consideration of the trade -offs between reservoir purposes. The preference criterion is developed within the framework of utility theory. The value judgments of the decision maker are quantified in terms of a two -attribute disutility function. It is argued that minimization of expected disutility is a plausible and well motivated criterion for multipurpose real -time reservoir control under uncertainty. A suitable disutility model is developed. The case of a group decision maker is analyzed in depth. Common group utility models based on aggregation of individual utility functions and interpersonal utility comparisons are critically reviewed. An alternative approach based on direct group value judgments is suggested, and a general group utility model for decision -making in engineering systems is developed. The disutility assessment procedures are analysed, and response biases that may be introduced into the decision maker's preference structure by the use of an inappropriate assessment scheme are identified. Some principles and novel techniques for assessing disutility functions are advocated; they are motivated by results of psychological research in human decision behavior, and are further supported by experimental evidence. Results of assessment of the reservoir control disutility function for several single and group decision makers are presented.
    • Preferential Reservoir Control Under Uncertainty

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-11)
      A model for real -time control of a multipurpose reservoir under the conditions of uncertainty is developed. The control model is formulated as a multistage decision process. It is conceptualized in the form of two sub -processes. The first level process is a Forecast - Strategy Process which performs as an open-loop feedback controller. It is defined by a sequence of forecasts and optimal release strategies against these forecasts. At each forecast time (time of issuing the forecast), the optimal release strategy is computed for the time period equal to the lead time of the forecast, and it remains in execution until the next forecast time. The second level process, defined for each forecast time, is a Control Process which for the given forecast generates the release strategy satisfying the preference criterion (minimization of expected disutility). This process is formulated as a truncated Markovian adaptive controller performing on a finite set of discrete times --the same set which indexes the forecast inflow process. To evaluate the past performance of the control, a set of measures of effectiveness is proposed. Computational aspects of the control model are analyzed. Structural properties of the reservoir control process are explored in the main theorem which assures the monotonicity of the optimal strategy with respect to one of the state variables. Also, the properties of the optimal strategy for the case of a categorical forecast are proven. Next, two suboptimal strategies are derived: (1) partial open -loop strategy and (2) naive /partial open-loop strategy. Finally, a'discretization procedure which guarantees convergence of the numerical solution is discussed, and the computational requirements of the optimal and two suboptimal strategies are compared.