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Aquifer Modeling by Numerical Methods Applied to an Arizona Groundwater BasinFLUMP, a recently developed mixed explicit -implicit finite -element program, was calibrated against a data base obtained from a portion of the Tucson Basin aquifer, Arizona, and represents its first application to a real -world problem. Two previous models for the same region were constructed (an electric analog and a finite -difference model) in which calibration was based on prescribed flux boundary conditions along stream courses and mountain fronts. These fluxes are not directly measured and estimates are subject to large uncertainties. In contrast, boundary conditions used in the calibration of FLUMP were prescribed hydraulic heads obtained from direct measurement. At prescribed head boundaries FLUMP computed time - varying fluxes representing subsurface lateral flow and recharge along streams. FLUMP correctly calculated fluctuations in recharge along the Santa Cruz River due to fluctuations in storm runoff and sewage effluent release rates. FLUMP also provided valuable insight into distributions of recharge, discharge, and subsurface flow in the study area.Properties of FLUMP were compared with those of two other programs in current use: ISOQUAD, a finite -element program developed by Pinder and Frind (1972), and a finite- difference program developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Trescott, et al., 1976). It appears that FLUMP can handle a larger class of problems than the other two programs, including those in which the boundary conditions and aquifer parameters vary arbitrarily with time and /or head. FLUMP also has the ability to solve explicitly when accuracy requires small time steps, the ability to solve explicitely in certain parts of the flow region while solving implicitly in other parts, flexibility in mesh design and numbering of nodes, computation of internal as well as external fluxes, and global as well as local mass balance checks at each time step.