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Dynamic Management of a Surface and Groundwater System on Both Sides of the Lower Yellow RiverThis paper analyzes the management problem of the conjunctive use of surface and ground water in an irrigation system on both sides of the Lower Yellow River. For this purpose, a stochastic dynamic programming model is developed. In the model, the statistical characteristics of seasonal rainfall within 2 years are considered; groundwater level control is also emphasized in order to prevent soil salinity and waterlogging. Through computer calculations, optimal operation policies are obtained for efficient conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. These policies take into account the interactions between pumping groundwater by farmers, canal diversions by irrigation system managers, and the physical response of the stream- aquifer system, and minimize the total operation costs. In this paper, we take an irrigation district, the People's Victory Canal System, as an example to illustrate the development and solution of the model. At the same time, the effects of system parameters, including surface irrigation efficiency and rainfall recharge coefficient, on the optimal policies or total operation costs, are discussed. The analytical results in this example indicate that the variation in optimal operation costs caused by the proportion of rainfall infiltrated is small, but the effect of surface irrigation efficiency on the costs is significant. Hence, the surface irrigation efficiency must be increased as much as possible. Then, efficient conjunctive use of surface and groundwater can be attained with the optimal policies.