• Effect Of Filtering On Autocorrelation, Flow, And Transport In Random Fractal Fields

      Federico, Vittorio Di; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-12)
      " Fractal" concepts have become the focus of much interest in the earth sciences during the last fifteen years. The term "fractal" is especially appealing from a semantic point of view in that Mandelbrot [ 1983] derived it from the Latin "fractus ", describing the appearance of a broken stone. In this report, we focus on issues of flow and contaminant transport in porous media. Here, fractal concepts have been widely associated with attempts to explain scale- effects such as the apparent growth of effective longitudinal dispersion with the scale of observation. However, a much broader range of topics has been explored in the literature on fractals, which can be roughly divided into two broad categories. The first category concerns a fractal description of medium geometry, over a given range of scales [Adler, 1992]. Within this category, the fractal geometry is considered to be either deterministic (self -similar) or random (statistically self -similar, or self -affine) [Voss 1985]. The second category views medium physical properties (porosity, log- conductivity) as random fields, most commonly with statistical self -similarity of second -order moments such as structure function ( variogram) or autocovariance. In this report, we focus on random fractal fields. We start with an introduction in Chapter 1 of isotropic random fractal fields and the scaling properties of corresponding power -law variogram and spectral densities in one, two, and three dimensions. We then derive new expressions for autocovariance functions corresponding to truncated power -law spectral densities; demonstrate that the power -law variogram and associated power spectra can be constructed as weighted integrals of exponential autocovariance functions and their spectra, representing an infinite hierarchy of unconelated homogeneous isotropic fields (modes); and analyze the effect of filtering out (truncating) high and low frequency modes from this hierarchy in the realand spectral domains. In Chapter 2, we derive first -order results relative to early preasymptotic, and late time asymptotic, transport in media characterized by a truncated log -conductivity power -law spectral density. In Chapter 3, we return to the multiscale log- conductivity fields constructed in Chapter 1; present some general results for early preasymptotic and late time asymptotic transport; and obtain complete first -order results for flow and transport, at preasymptotic and asymptotic stages, in two dimensions. In Chapter 4, we explore the multiscale behavior of conductivity from an aquifer in Mobile, Alabama, using different methods of data reduction. In Chapter 5, we summarize our main conclusions.

      Winchell, Michael; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997)
      Runoff generation has been shown to be very sensitive to precipitation input. With the use of precipitation estimates from weather radar, errors are introduced from both the transformation from reflectivity to precipitation rate and the spatial and temporal aggregation of the radar product. Currently, a significant degree of uncertainty exists in the accuracy of radar-based precipitation estimates. When uncalibrated or poorly calibrated radar products were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model, the resulting predicted runoff varied severely from the runoff generated using well-calibrated radar products. Another source of uncertainty, errors in the precipitation system structure due to aggregation in time and space, has also been shown to affect runoff generation. This study focuses on separating the primary runoff- generating mechanisms -- infiltration excess and saturation excess -- to assess their responses to variable precipitation inputs individually. For the case of saturation excess runoff, there was minimal sensitivity due to temporal aggregation of the precipitation; however, there was considerable sensitivity to spatial aggregation. For the case of infiltration excess runoff, temporal and spatial aggregation of the precipitation significantly reduced the amount of runoff produced. The magnitudes of these runoff reductions varied between storms and showed a high degree of dependence on storm characteristics, particularly the maximum precipitation intensity.
    • Effluent recharge to the Upper Santa Cruz River floodplain aquifer, Santa Cruz county, Arizona

      Scott, Paul S.; Mac Nish, Robert D.; Maddock, Thomas, III; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona; Arizona Research Laboratory for Riparian Studies (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997)
      The City of Nogales, Arizona, is in the Santa Cruz Active Management Area and is subject to the assured water supply and conservation mandates of the 1980, Groundwater Management Act (State of Arizona, 1980). The primary water supply for both Nogales Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, (commonly referred to as Ambos Nogales) is groundwater pumped from the shallow alluvial aquifers which underlie the Upper Santa Cruz River in Arizona and Mexico, and its tributaries (principally Nogales Wash and Potrero Creek). Nogales, Sonora also obtains water from the Los Alisos Basin, which is south of the Santa Cruz Basin in Mexico (Carruth, 1995). The NIWTP provides wastewater treatment for Ambos Nogales, and discharges treated wastewater to the Upper Santa Cruz River near the confluence with Nogales Wash and Sonoita Creek. The discharge of effluent creates an intermittent stream from the NIWTP outfall for approximately 13 river miles to Tubac, Arizona. The conservation mandates of the 1980, Groundwater Management Act (State of Arizona, 1980) require the City of Nogales, Arizona to prove the existence of a 100-year water supply as a condition for future growth. The Act also allows Nogales, Arizona to receive recharge credits for the portion of effluent that recharges the aquifer underlying the Santa Cruz River. The recharge credits will be used by the City of Nogales as partial proof of a 100-year water supply (Carruth, 1995).

      Humes, Karen Sue; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1993)
      The overall topic of the research described in this dissertation was the partitioning of available energy at the Earth's surface into sensible and latent heat flux, with an emphasis on the development of techniques which utilize remotely sensed data. One of the major objectives was to investigate the modification of existing techniques, developed over agricultural surfaces, to "natural" ecosystems (i.e., non -agricultural vegetation types with variable and incomplete canopy cover). Ground -based measurements of surface fluxes, vegetation cover, and surface and root -zone soil moisture from the First ISLSCP (International Land Surface Climatology Program) Field Experiment (FIFE) were used to examine the factors controlling the partitioning of energy at ground stations with contrasting surface characteristics. Utilizing helicopter -based and satellite -based data acquired directly over ground -based flux stations at the FINE experimental area, relatively simple algorithms were developed for estimating the soil heat flux and sensible heat flux from remotely sensed data. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the sensible heat flux computed with the remotely sensed data and the sensible heat flux measured at the ground stations was 33 Wm 2. These algorithms were then applied on a pixel -by -pixel basis to data from a Landsat -TM (Thematic Mapper) scene acquired over the FIFE site on August 15, 1987 to produce spatially distributed surface energy- balance components for the FIFE site. A methodology for quantifying the effect of spatial scaling on parameters derived from remotely sensed data was presented. As an example of the utility of this approach, NDVI values for the 1,IFE experimental area were computed with input data of variable spatial resolution. The differences in the values of NDVI computed at different spatial resolutions were accurately predicted by an equation which quantified those differences in terms of variability in input observations.
    • Estimation of effective unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tensor using spatial moments of observed moisture plume

      Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Ye, Ming; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-10)
      Knowledge of unsaturated zone hydraulic properties is critical for many environmental and engineering applications. Various stochastic methods have been developed during the past two decades to estimate the effective unsaturated hydraulic properties. Independent of these stochastic methods, we develop in this paper a practical approach to estimate the three-dimensional (3 -D) effective unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tensor using spatial moments of 3-D snapshots of a moisture plume under transient flow conditions. approach hydraulic hydraulic Application of the new to a field site in southeastern Washington State yields an effective unsaturated conductivity tensor that exhibits moisture- dependent anisotropy. The effective conductivities compare well with laboratory- measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data from small core samples; they also reproduce the general behavior of the observed moisture plume at the site. We also define a moisture diffusivity length concept which we use in conjunction with estimated correlation scales of the geological media at the field site to explain deviations between the observed and simulated plumes based on the derived effective hydraulic properties.
    • Eutrophication: A Mathematical Model

      Friedman, Joel Herbert; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1973-06)
      Various approaches to modeling phytoplanktonzooplankton- nutrient interactions have been investigated. A stochastic birth- death model was developed to describe changes in phytoplankton and zooplankton population levels at a given point. Tuie stochastic birth -death model was combined with a deterministic mass balance of limiting nutrient concentration to form an over -all system theoretic model that enables one to use Monte Carlo simulation to study the problem of eutrophication. A comparison made between this modeling approach and the standard differential equation approach suggested that further investigation was desirable, particularly in the area of model calibration.
    • Evaluation of flood forecasting-response systems

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-01)
      The value of a forecast system in preventing urban property damage depends on the accuracy of the forecasts, the time at which they are received, the response by the floodplain dweller and the êfficacy of that response. A systems model of the overall flood forecast -response system is developed. Evaluation of the system is accomplished by a decision theoretic methodology. A case study is done for Milton, Pennsylvania, which evaluates the present system and potential changes to it. It is concluded that the sequential nature of the forecast sequence must be considered in modeling the flood forecast -response system if a meaningful evaluation of the economic value of the system is to be obtained. Methodology for obtaining the parameterization of the model from the available data is given. Computer programs have been written to handle a good portion of the calculations. While more work is needed on obtaining accurate parameterization of certain parts of the model, such as the actual response to forecasts; use of the procedures and programs as they now stand produces reasonable evaluations.
    • Evaluation of flood forecasting-response systems II

      Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Davis, Donald Ross; Ferrell, William R.; Hosne-Sanaye, Simin; Perry, Scott E.; Rototham, Hugh B.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-01)
      system model and computational methodology have been developed which evaluate the worth of flood forecast - response systems in reducing the economic damage caused by floods. The efficiencies of the forecast system, the response system, and the overall system may be individually obtained and compared. In this report the case study of Milton, Pennsylvania, was extended and further case studies were performed including a large residential section of Victoria, Texas, and all the residences in Columbus, Mississippi. These locations show better forecast and response efficiencies than obtained for Milton, Pennsylvania. The difference is attributed to longer forecast lead times at Columbus and Victoria. Sensitivity analyses were run at all three locations. These show the effects of many system factors, such as the time required to produce, disseminate and respond to a forecast, on the efficiency of the system. The forecast efficiency improves significantly as these times are reduced. Further analysis of the response system based on human factors involved has led to the development of a simulation model of the process by which the floodplain dweller determines the appropriate response to a flood warning. Investigation of ways to extend the methodology to evaluate regions lacking the detailed data used for the case studies has indicated more problems than answers. Extrapolation based on overall system efficiency related to published regional and national flood damage estimates was used to provide an approximate value of the flood forecast - response system for two regions and for the nation.A listing of simplicities and approximations which make computations tractable but which may affect accuracy is given. Finally, an evaluation of the work accomplished for this project and suggestions for the constructive use of the flood forecast -response system model and computational procedures is given.
    • An evaluation of hydrologic and riparian resources in Saguaro National Park, Tucson, Arizona

      Baird, Kathryn J.; Mac Nish, Robert; Guertin, D. Philip; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Within Saguaro National Park only Rincon Mountain District contains significant riparian areas. The geologic framework of the Tanque Verde Ridge and Rincon Valley exerts strong control on the hydrology of these riparian systems. Pantano fault constitutes a line of hydrogeologic separation between the occurrence and utilization of groundwater in the Rincon Valley and the main Tucson basin. No known, comparable fault isolates the upper Tanque Verde Creek alluvium from downstream pumping effects. However, east of the confluence with Agua Caliente Wash, the highly permeable alluvial materials are much thinner, and serve to dampen such downstream effects. Therefore, the ground water reservoirs supporting the riparian areas within Rincon Mountain District are not directly connected to the Tucson basin aquifer. In what is described herein as upper basin areas, high gradient tributary streams to Tanque Verde Creek and Rincon Creek have discontinuous bodies of shallow alluvium interspersed with bedrock channel. Alluvium has accumulated behind small faults or resistant bedrock ledges and contains shallow ground water basins that support small pockets of riparian or xeroriparian vegetation. The ground water in these small basins is sustained by seeps or springs, and by runoff from precipitation and is not likely to be connected to a regional ground water system. In what we have characterized as middle basin areas, the stream gradients are less than 25m/km. In these low gradient reaches, the alluvial floodplain sediments are continuous, though not thick, as ledges of more resistant bedrock formations appear in the stream channel. These low gradient reaches contain larger volumes of ground water than the high gradient basins and support more robust riparian vegetation. The ground water in the low gradient reaches is believed to be connected to the regional ground water system. Such a low gradient reach exists in a tributary to Tanque Verde Creek about 1.4 km east of Wentworth Road and extends about 1.6 km into the Park. A similar low gradient reach occurs along Rincon Creek in the Expansion Area, and at the mouths of Chiminea and Madrona Creeks.
    • Evaluation of national weather service ensemble streamflow predictions (ESP) for the Colorado river basin

      Franz, Kristie J.; Hartmann, Holly C.; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Bales, Roger; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003-01)
      The National Weather Service (NWS) developed the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) system to generate probabilistic water supply forecasts that consist of an ensemble of streamflow traces (scenarios) conditioned on the initial states of the basin. Uncertainty information available from ESP may be more useful to risk-based decision makers than what is currently provided by linear regression forecasts. Because the use of ESP has been limited to date, there are few operational forecasts available for verification. Therefore, it was necessary to generate simulated operational ESP forecasts to test the forecasting procedure's potential to enhance current forecasting techniques. Simulated historical forecasts were generated for 14 forecast points in the Colorado River basin. The median and best forecast traces were analyzed as representations of ESP deterministic forecasts. General scalar statistics were used to evaluate these traces. The probability information contained in the entire ensemble was analyzed using probabilistic and conditional verification methods. It was found that the information contained in the median trace is limited and that choosing one trace is not the optimal use of ESP forecast information. ESP provides a probabilistic forecast that performs better than a probabilistic forecast based on climatology. In addition, ESP can provide accurate information about the magnitude of future streamflow discharge even at lead times of up to seven months. With shorter lead times (2-3 months), the forecasts become more informative and accurate.

      Mathieu, James T., Jr.; Yeh, T.-C. Jim; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-10)
      Five sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of unsaturated flow in heterogeneous porous media and to test the recent stochastic theories of Yeh et al. (1985a, b. c) and Mantoglou et al. (1987a, b, c) on flow through unsaturated porous media. The hydraulic properties @(w) and K(0) of the medium and coarse sand used in the experiments were measured with various laboratory columns. Fourteen medium and coarse sands were alternately layered in the 2.38 m long x 1.12 m high x 0.1 m thick sand tank. Water was infiltrated from a point source for three of five experiments and from a channel source for two experiments. An array of 62 tensiometers were used to record the capillary tension head distribution during each experiment. The wetting front profiles for the first experiment show the stratified sand effects both the development and dissipation of preferential flow paths. The experimental results qualitatively support stochastic theory of saturation dependent anisotropy. Three of the five experiments agree with the stochastic result of Yeh et al. (1985a and b) that an increase in the variance of the capillary tension head (soil becomes drier) is proportional to an increase in the mean tension head.
    • Flow model for the Bingham cienega area, San Pedro river basin, Arizona: a management and restoration tool

      Ronayne, Michael James; Maddock, Thomas, III; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-10)
      A finite element groundwater flow model was used to support a hydrologic assessment for a study area in the Lower San Pedro River Basin which contains the Bingham Cienega. Consolidated sedimentary rocks associated with an extension of the Catalina Core Complex truncate the floodplain aquifer system in the study area. The elevated water table produced by this "hardrock" results in spring discharge at the cienega and a locally gaining reach of the San Pedro River. The steady -state model suggests that recharge (and discharge) components for the floodplain aquifer sum to 3.10 cfs. Mountain front recharge, underflow, and stream leakage are the primary recharge mechanisms, while stream leakage, evapotranspiration, spring flow, and underflow out are sources for groundwater discharge. A steady -oscillatory model was used to account for seasonal periodicity in the system's boundary conditions. Monthly variation in the evapotranspiration rate was offset primarily by storage changes in the aquifer. Due to a lack of measured hydrologic data within the study area, results from the model simulations are only preliminary. Model development and the subsequent sensitivity analyses have provided insight into what type of data needs to be collected. Head measurements are most needed in the area just downstream from Bingham Cienega. The mountain front recharge and evapotranspiration rates are shown to be highly sensitive parameters in the model; improved estimation of these values would be helpful. Spring discharge would be a valuable calibration tool if it could be accurately measured. A more extensive record of stream baseflow in the San Pedro River should be established. After more hydrologic data is collected, the model could be recalibrated so as to better represent the system. Eventually, this tool may be used in direct support of management and/or restoration decisions.
    • A Geostatistical Inverse Method for Variably Saturated Flow in the Vadose Zone

      Yeh, T.-C. Jim; Zhang, Jinqi; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-10-11)
      A geostatistical inverse technique utilizing both primary and secondary information is developed to estimate conditional means of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters (saturated hydraulic conductivity and pore -size distribution parameters) in the vadose zone. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity and pore -size distribution parameters are considered as the primary information, while measurements of steady -state flow processes (soil -water pressure head and degree of saturation) are regarded as the secondary information. This inverse approach relies on the classical linear predictor (cokriging) theory and takes the advantage of the spatial cross- correlation between soil -water pressure head, degree of saturation, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and pore -size distribution parameter. Using an approximate perturbation solution for steady, variably saturated flow under general boundary conditions, the cross- covariances between the primary and secondary information are derived. The approximate solution is formulated based on a first -order Taylor series expansion of a discretized finite element equation. The sensitivity matrix in the solution is evaluated by an adjoint state sensitivity approach for flow in heterogeneous media under variably saturated conditions. Through several numerical examples, the inverse model demonstrates its ability to improve the estimates of the spatial distribution of saturated hydraulic conductivity and pore -size distribution parameters using the secondary information.
    • Ground-water flow and interaction with surface water in San Bernardino valley, Cochise county, Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

      Davis, Laura Agnes; Maddock, Thomas, III; Nish, Robert Mac; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-01)
      In the center of San Bernardino Valley in southeastern Arizona, San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge provides unique wetlands habitat for endangered fish and wildlife. Confined conditions exist within the refuge, producing springs, artesian wells, and perennial pools along Black Draw, the main surface-water drainage. A numerical flow model was constructed in order to understand the hydrogeologic system of the basin. Annual inflows to the basin include 50,171 acre-feet of mountain-front recharge, 4,360 acft of underflow, and 7,074 ac-ft of river leakage. Annual outflows consist of 57,704 ac-ft of underflow, 3,010 ac-ft of river leakage, 537 ac-ft of evapotranspiration, 346 ac-ft of spring discharge, and 5 ac-ft of stream leakage. Further investigations are needed to refine the annual steady-state model, develop a seasonal (oscillatory) model, and construct transient simulations predicting responses of the hydrologic system to climatic and/or anthropogenic stresses. Extremely large mountain-front recharge and subsurface outflow estimates should be improved by conducting pump tests, geophysical studies, and isotope dating and chemistry analyses of ground water, and by collecting more water levels in Sonora. These studies will also provide information on the role of basalt flows in mountain-front recharge distribution and ground-water flow patterns. The study concludes with a recommended monitoring program for the refuge.
    • Hydrogeology in the United States 1780-1950

      Davis, Stanley N.; Davis, Augusta G.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005-11)
      Most modern textbooks that deal with subsurface water, or hydrogeology, include a brief summary of the historical development of the science. In our book, we have expanded on this general theme without introducing the more technical aspects of the topic. We have, however, emphasized two important points that are commonly overlooked. First, most of the fundamental contributions made during the 1800's were not American but were primarily European. Second, 1885 was the date of the first ground -water publication of the United States Geological Survey, but it did not mark the birth of hydrogeology in the United States. Some American contributions were made about 80 years earlier. The authors are grateful for the assistance of many individuals. T. N. Narasimhan, M. P. Anderson, F. M. Phillips, D. B. Stephens, J. V. Brahana, C. W. Fetter, D. Deming, and D. I. Siegel were given the initial version of our book and provided numerous useful comments.

      Lovell, Robert Edmund; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1975-06)
      The problem of selecting appropriate mathematical models for use in studying hydrological phenomena has created a situation in which the choice of suitable models by hydrologic practitioners has become exceedingly complex. The extensive comments in the literature indicate that neither the traditional system of technical journals nor the more modern computer -based retrieval schemes have really solved the problem. Further examination shows that similar problems have arisen in many fields, hence a well organized attack on the specific problem of hydrologic model choice can have a more general application. The present problem is identified as a requirement to codify and make accessible to users information in a more directly user oriented format. The problem of model choice arises at several levels, ranging from decision on what fundamental structure to use, to choice of parameters, and on to model calibration and validation. This paper is focused on a scheme to aid in model structure choice. The essential ingredients of model structure choice, and indeed of many choice processes, are extracted and embedded in a generalized set theoretic mathematical notational framework in order to give some insight into the nature of the problem. Within this framework the specialized features of the model choice problem are analyzed, and a specialized model is developed for assisting in model choice and all problems similarly situated. These considerations lead to the development of a finite vector of objective statements with codified responses prepared by a panel of qualified researchers who are willing and able to construct the essential information in a user oriented format. It is required that the panel not only couch their information in objective oriented terms but that they also generate value judgments for the individual components. In this way, those using the system can take advantage of the expert opinions embedded in the model while, at the same time, tailoring the choice to meet their own specific needs and aspirations. This results in what is defined as a mathematical CHOICEMODEL. The implementation of a system for interactive computation of the CHOICEMODEL is described in detail, and the associated computer programs are presented in appendices. A detailed instruction manual is given, and the implementation of the method is illustrated by an easily understood model of the ingredients of the problem of selecting an 8 -track stereo tape deck for home use. The plan is outlined whereby hydrologic choice models can be developed within the CHOICEMODEL system by a selected panel of expert EVALUATORs.
    • Hydrologic resource assessment of upper Sabino Creek basin, Pima county, Arizona

      Peters, Christopher J.; Bales, Roger C.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001-01)
      A hydrologic resource assessment was performed for upper Sabino Creek basin, using data from a variety of local, state, and Federal agencies and organizations. Hydrologic fluxes were identified and quantified in order to create a monthly water budget. Snowmelt and rainfall are the major inputs to the watershed. Evapotranspiration accounts for the greatest loss of water. Human consumption and streamflow, while important for regulatory and aesthetic reasons, are relatively minor components of the water budget. Evapotranspiration, precipitation, and groundwater recharge / soil moisture account for the greatest fluxes of water in the basin. Precipitation is the most variable hydrologic process in the study area. Over a 47-year period, the greatest amount of water moving through the system in any one month was 6,300 acre-feet in October of 1983. The month with the lowest movement of water was December 1996, with 400 acre-feet. A comparison of Sabino Creek data with the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon shows a strong correlation with precipitation and streamflow in upper Sabino Creek basin.

      Harshman, Celina Anne; Maddock, Thomas III; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1993)
      Riparian forests, which support rich biological diversity in the North American southwest, have experienced a sharp decline in the last century. The extent of this decline has been estimated to range from 70% to 95% across the southwest (Johnson and Haight, 1984). The principal components of riparian forests which sustain a broad spectrum of species and describe the overall health of a system are cottonwoods (sp. Populus) and willows (sp. Salix). The importance of cottonwoods is aptly described by Rood et al (1993): "....these trees provide the foundation of the riparian forest ecosystem in semi -arid areas of western North America. Unlike wetter areas to the east and west, a loss of cottonwoods in these riparian areas is not compensated through enrichment from other tree species. If the cottonwoods die, the entire forest ecosystem collapses." Cottonwood and willow species are adversely affected by anthropogenic influences ranging most prominently from the introduction of regulated flows via dams to agricultural clearing, water diversions, livestock grazing, and domestic settlement. These influences effectively alter the system hydrology that the forests rely upon. As the widespread destruction of these forests and the associated irreparable damage to endangered species habitat has come into clear view in the past decade, research efforts have focused upon identifying the ecological needs of riparian systems. The potential of modifying such systems to soften the human impact upon them, in effect presenting further alterations on a hydrologic system to return it to its natural regime, is another component of the research on riparian systems. The Bill Williams River riparian corridor, near Parker, Arizona (Figure 1.1), contains the last extensive native riparian habitat along the lower Colorado River (BWC Technical Committee, 1993). This unique resource was established as the Bill Williams River Management Unit, Havasu National Wildlife Refuge in 1941 and covers 6105 acres along the lower 12 miles of the Bill Williams River (Rivers West, 1990). The Bill Williams Unit is currently managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of Interior. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service also funded this research effort. The lush vegetation corresponding to the wetland conditions along the valley floor sharply contrast with the Sonoran desert landscape of the upper valley walls creating a magnificent picture. The Management Unit terminates at Lake Havasu, which forms the confluence of the Bill Williams and Colorado Rivers. The system provides habitat for a wide variety of species, many of which are endangered or state- listed species, including habitat for neotropical migratory birds. This habitat has undergone serious degeneration during the past quarter century. The recruitment of cottonwood and willow trees has been fatally interrupted by anthropogenic encroachment in the form of the construction of Alamo Dam in 1969 at the head of the Bill Williams River and commercial development along the River.
    • Improving the Reliability of Compartmental Models: Case of Conceptual Hydrologic Rainfall-Runoff Models

      Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-08)

      Wolford, Ross A.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1992-12)
      Seasonally snow covered alpine areas play a larger role in the hydrologic cycle than their area would indicate. Their ecosystems may be sensitive indicators of climatic and atmospheric change. Assessing the hydrologic and bio- geochemical responses of these areas to changes in inputs of water, chemicals and energy should be based on a detailed understanding of watershed processes. This dissertation discusses the development and testing of a model capable of predicting watershed hydrologic and hydrochemical responses to these changes. The model computes integrated water and chemical balances for watersheds with unlimited numbers of terrestrial, stream, and lake subunits, each of which may have a unique, variable snow -covered area. Model capabilities include 1) tracking of chemical inputs from precipitation, dry deposition, snowmelt, mineral weathering, basefiow or flows from areas external to the modeled watershed, and user -defined sources and sinks, 2) tracking water and chemical movements in the canopy, snowpack, soil litter, multiple soil layers, streamflow, between terrestrial subunits (surface and subsurface movement), and within lakes (2 layers), 3) chemical speciation, including free and total soluble species, precipitates, exchange complexes, and acid -neutralizing capacity, 4) nitrogen reactions, 5) a snowmelt optimization procedure capable of exactly matching observed watershed outflows, and 6) modeling riparian areas. Two years of data were available for fitting and comparing observed and modeled output. To the extent possible, model parameters are set based on physical or chemical measurements, leaving only a few fitted parameters. The effects of snowmelt rate, rate of chemical elution from the snowpack, nitrogen reactions, mineral weathering, and flow routing on modeled outputs are examined.