The Effects of Duration of Exposure to the REAPS Model in Developing Students' General Creativity and Creative Problem Solving in Science
KeywordsDeveloping General Creativity
Developing Creative Problem Solving in Science
AdvisorMaker, C. June
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP) and the Test of Creative Problem Solving in Science (TCPS-S).A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to control for differences between the two groups on pretest results. Statistically significant differences were not found between posttest scores on the TCT-DP for the two durations of REAPS model implementation. However, statistically significant differences were found between posttest scores on the TCPS-S. These findings are consistent with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance, particularly her explanation that domain-specific creativity requires knowledge such as specific content and technical skills that must be learned prior to being applied creatively. The findings are also consistent with literature in which researchers have found that longer interventions typically result in expected positive growth in domain-specific creativity, while both longer and shorter interventions have been found effective in improving domain-general creativity. Change scores were also calculated between pre- and posttest scores on the 8 aspects of creativity (Maker, Jo, Alfaiz, & Alhusaini, 2015a), and a binary logistic regression was conducted to assess which were the most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The regression model was statistically significant, with aspects of generating ideas, adding details to ideas, and finding problems being the most affected by the long duration of the intervention. Based on these findings, the researcher believes that the REAPS model is a useful intervention to develop students' creativity. Future researchers should implement the model for longer durations if they are interested in developing students' domain-specific creative problem solving ability.
Degree ProgramGraduate College