THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MILK ON THE HEALTH OF INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADULTS
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
AbstractThis literature review compares the physiological and nutritional benefits and detriments associated with different types of milks and their impacts on the health of infants, children, and adults. After the background presentation, the history of milk production, quality, and accessibility and their impacts of milk choices are reviewed. For infants, breastfeeding is commonly accepted as the best source of nutrition.In some situations, people choose alternative sources. Therefore, a section of the literature review analyzes factors that influence the process of breastfeeding and weaning. These factors include cultural norms, socioeconomics status, education, and health conditions. After covering the social aspects, the nutritional compositions of human breast milk and their physiological benefits are presented. The nutritional aspects of breastfeeding alternatives or formulas are also compared to determine the optimal source for infants. After weaning, humans rely on non-human milk sources. Therefore, the nutritional aspects of animal milks-cow, goat, and sheep and plant-based milks– soy and almond were compared. Finally, the impact of human modification of milk quality is analyzed to further understand the variety of milk choices present. Overall, both cultural and physiological conditions are considered to understand the benefits and detriments associated with each type of milk.