Measurement and Analysis of Wavefront Deviations and Distortions by Freeform Optical See-through Head Mounted Displays
AuthorKuhn, Jason William
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA head-mounted-display with an optical combiner may introduce significant amount of distortion to the real world scene. The ability to accurately model the effects of both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional distortion introduced by thick optical elements has many uses in the development of head-mounted display systems and applications. For instance, the computer rendering system must be able to accurately model this distortion and provide accurate compensation in the virtual path in order to provide a seamless overlay between the virtual and real world scenes. In this paper, we present a ray tracing method that determines the ray shifts and deviations introduced by a thick optical element giving us the ability to generate correct computation models for rendering a virtual object in 3D space with the appropriate amount of distortion. We also demonstrate how a Hartmann wavefront sensor approach can be used to evaluate the manufacturing errors in a freeform optical element to better predict wavefront distortion. A classic Hartmann mask is used as an inexpensive and easily manufacturable solution for accurate wavefront measurements. This paper further suggests two techniques; by scanning the Hartmann mask laterally to obtain dense sampling and by increasing the view screen distance to the testing aperture, for improving the slope measurement accuracy and resolution. The paper quantifies the improvements of these techniques on measuring both the high and low sloped wavefronts often seen in freeform optical-see-through head-mounted displays. By comparing the measured wavefront to theoretical wavefronts constructed with ray tracing software, we determine the sources of error within the freeform prism. We also present a testing setup capable of measuring off-axis viewing angles to replicate how the system would perform when worn by its user.
Degree ProgramGraduate College