AuthorGoodrich, David Charles
AffiliationDepartment of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona
Southwest Watershed Research Center
KeywordsRunoff -- Mathematical models.
Rain and rainfall -- Mathematical models.
Hydrology -- Mathematical models.
Runoff -- Arizona -- Mathematical models.
Rain and rainfall -- Arizona -- Mathematical models.
Hydrology -- Arizona -- Mathematical models.
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Collection InformationThis title from the Hydrology & Water Resources Technical Reports collection is made available by the Department of Hydrology & Atmospheric Sciences and the University Libraries, University of Arizona. If you have questions about titles in this collection, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
AbstractDistributed Rainfall-Runoff models are gaining widespread acceptance; yet, a fundamental issue that must be addressed by all users of these models is definition of an acceptable level of watershed discretization (geometric model complexity). The level of geometric model complexity is a function of basin and climatic scales as well as the availability of input and verification data. Equilibrium discharge storage is employed to develop a quantitative methodology to define a level of geometric model complexity commensurate with a specified level of model performance. Equilibrium storage ratios are used to define the transition from overland to channel -dominated flow response. The methodology is tested on four subcatchments in the USDA -ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeastern Arizona. The catchments cover a range of basins scales of over three orders of magnitude. This enabled a unique assessment of watershed response behavior as a function of basin scale. High quality, distributed, rainfall -runoff data was used to verify the model (KINEROSR). Excellent calibration and verification results provided confidence in subsequent model interpretations regarding watershed response behavior. An average elementary channel support area of roughly 15% of the total basin area is shown to provide a watershed discretization level that maintains model performance for basins ranging in size from 1.5 to 631 hectares. Detailed examination of infiltration, including the role and impacts of incorporating small scale infiltration variability in a distribution sense, into KINEROSR, over a range of soils and climatic scales was also addressed. The impacts of infiltration and channel losses on runoff response increase with increasing watershed scale as the relative influence of storms is diminished in a semiarid environment such as Walnut Gulch. In this semiarid environment, characterized by ephemeral streams, watershed runoff response does not become more linear with increasing watershed scale but appears to become more nonlinear.
Series/Report no.Technical Reports on Natural Resource Systems, No. 91-010
SponsorsMany have contributed directly or indirectly to the research effort reported here. Special thanks to Dr. David A. Woolhiser. I am forever in his debt for his thoughtful guidance, gracious patience, and largess of time, insight and wisdom. Dr. Soroosh Sorooshian's acumen and discerning judgement has contributed greatly to this effort. Many staff members of the Aridland Watershed Management Research Unit of USDA -Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Tucson, Arizona have provided valuable knowledge, assistance and diligent collection of high quality hydrologic data. Special thanks are extended to Carl Unkrich, Tim Keefer, Roger Simanton and Fatima Lopez. Financial assistance during the course of my graduate work has been provided by the National Science Foundation via a Graduate Research Fellowship, the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Hydrology Section of the American Geophysical Union for a Research Fellowships, the U. S. Geological Survey, USDA - Agricultural Research Service, and the U. S. Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). Preparation and distribution of this report was made possible by a NASA /EOS interdisciplinary investigation (Sorooshian and Huerte, 1989). Without this assistance this effort could not have been undertaken and I gratefully acknowledge this support.
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Improving the Reliability of Compartmental Models: Case of Conceptual Hydrologic Rainfall-Runoff ModelsSorooshian, Soroosh; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-08)
Modeling of Ground-Water Flow and Surface/Ground-Water Interaction for the San Pedro River Basin Part I Mexican Border to Fairbank, ArizonaVionnet, Leticia Beatriz; Maddock, Thomas, III; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1992)Many hydrologic basins in the southwest have seen their perennial streamflows turn to ephemeral, their riparian communities disappear or be jeopardized, and their aquifers suffer from severe overdrafts. Under -management of ground -water exploitation and of conjunctive use of surface and ground waters are the main reasons for these events.
CALIBRATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS USING GRADIENT-BASED ALGORITHMS AND ANALYTIC DERIVATIVESHendrickson, Jene Diane,1960-; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-05)In the past, derivative-based optimization algorithms have not frequently been used to calibrate conceptual rainfall -riff (CRR) models, partially due to difficulties associated with obtaining the required derivatives. This research applies a recently- developed technique of analytically computing derivatives of a CRR model to a complex, widely -used CRR model. The resulting least squares response surface was found to contain numerous discontinuities in the surface and derivatives. However, the surface and its derivatives were found to be everywhere finite, permitting the use of derivative -based optimization algorithms. Finite difference numeric derivatives were computed and found to be virtually identical to analytic derivatives. A comparison was made between gradient (Newton- Raphsoz) and direct (pattern search) optimization algorithms. The pattern search algorithm was found to be more robust. The lower robustness of the Newton-Raphsoi algorithm was thought to be due to discontinuities and a rough texture of the response surface.