Dynamic Management of a Surface and Groundwater System on Both Sides of the Lower Yellow River
AffiliationDepartment of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona
KeywordsGroundwater -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Mathematical models.
Groundwater -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Computer programs.
Water resources development -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Mathematical models.
Water resources development -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Computer programs.
Irrigation efficiency -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Mathematical models.
Irrigation efficiency -- China -- Lower Yellow River -- Computer programs.
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AbstractThis paper analyzes the management problem of the conjunctive use of surface and ground water in an irrigation system on both sides of the Lower Yellow River. For this purpose, a stochastic dynamic programming model is developed. In the model, the statistical characteristics of seasonal rainfall within 2 years are considered; groundwater level control is also emphasized in order to prevent soil salinity and waterlogging. Through computer calculations, optimal operation policies are obtained for efficient conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. These policies take into account the interactions between pumping groundwater by farmers, canal diversions by irrigation system managers, and the physical response of the stream- aquifer system, and minimize the total operation costs. In this paper, we take an irrigation district, the People's Victory Canal System, as an example to illustrate the development and solution of the model. At the same time, the effects of system parameters, including surface irrigation efficiency and rainfall recharge coefficient, on the optimal policies or total operation costs, are discussed. The analytical results in this example indicate that the variation in optimal operation costs caused by the proportion of rainfall infiltrated is small, but the effect of surface irrigation efficiency on the costs is significant. Hence, the surface irrigation efficiency must be increased as much as possible. Then, efficient conjunctive use of surface and groundwater can be attained with the optimal policies.
Series/Report no.Technical Reports on Hydrology and Water Resources, No. 87-011
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Phreatic Water Quality Assessment and Associated Hydrogeochemical Processes in an Irrigated Region Along the Upper Yellow River, Northwestern ChinaLiu, Fei; Zhao, Zhipeng; Yang, Lihu; Ma, Yuxue; Li, Bingliang; Gong, Liang; Liu, Haiyan; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (MDPI, 2020-02-10)Groundwater resources are playing an increasingly vital role in water supply for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Yinchuan Plain, along with the reduction in water transfer from the Yellow River. This study aimed to identify the current status of phreatic water quality and associated hydrogeochemical processes in an irrigated region along the upper Yellow River. A total of 78 water samples were collected in September 2018 for chemical analysis. Results showed that the phreatic water was excellent or good in most areas west of the Yellow River, while it was poor or very poor quality in some places east of the Yellow River. The nitrate contamination is particularly severe in the pluvial-alluvial plain, relating to the localized fine-grained zone with low permeability. Most samples had no sodium hazard but had magnesium hazard. Additionally, the overall evolutionary trend of the phreatic water showed the transformation of Ca-Mg-HCO3 into Na-Cl-SO4 type. Rock weathering and evaporation jointly predominate the evolution of phreatic water chemistry. The main geochemical processes involve the dissolution/precipitation of gypsum, halite, dolomite. and calcite, along with the cation exchange. Insights from this work have important implications for groundwater sustainable management in such irrigated regions along the upper Yellow River.
WATER QUALITY IN THE LOWER COLORADO RIVER AND THE EFFECT OF RESERVOIRSSlawson, G. C.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1972-07)Comparison of the power spectra of TDS time series from different locations on the Lower Colorado River is useful in showing changes in salinity and for indicating physical factors influencing salinity. Similarities between the power spectra of the Lee Ferry and Grand Canyon tine series indicated that lateral inputs and evaporation are not greatly influencing the salinity cycle. The salinity change within this reach was approximated by a constant concentration change of 66.6 ppm. A similar model form was used for the Hoover Dam to Parker Dam reach. Dissimilarities between power spectra indicated that additional inputs are significant and must be accounted for in any model of such reaches. The model for Lake Mead required compensation for evaporation and for the inputs of the Virgin River and Las Vegas Wash. The modeled salinity increase between Parker Dam and Yuma contained a trend factor to allow for the effect of irrigation return flows and seepage. The crosscovariance function was used to approximate the time lag between data stations. Time series statistics, including coherence, response function spectra, and overall unit response, were used and are of utility in estimating salinity in a river system.