An analysis of the effects of retiring irrigation pumpage in the San Pedro riparian national conservation area, Cochise county, Arizona
AffiliationDepartment of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona
Arizona Research Laboratory for Riparian Studies
KeywordsWater-supply -- Arizona -- San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area.
Irrigation farming -- San Pedro River Valley (Mexico and Ariz.)
Groundwater -- San Pedro River Valley (Mexico and Ariz.)
Riparian areas -- San Pedro River (Mexico and Ariz.)
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RightsCopyright © Arizona Board of Regents
Collection InformationThis title from the Hydrology & Water Resources Technical Reports collection is made available by the Department of Hydrology & Atmospheric Sciences and the University Libraries, University of Arizona. If you have questions about titles in this collection, please contact email@example.com.
AbstractA seasonal groundwater model was developed to simulate fluxes and head distributions with periodic boundary conditions within the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) in southeastern Arizona. This model incorporated a seasonal approach for the period 1940-1995. Two years were used to simulate streamflow, 1990 and 1995. The model, as currently calibrated, does not accurately reproduce observed baseflow conditions in the San Pedro River and simulates an exaggerated effect of retiring irrigation within the SPRNCA. The model simulated increased baseflows while the observed baseflows declined at the USGS Charleston stream gage, though increases in baseflow contributions between Hereford Bridge and Lewis Springs have been reported. The original (Corell, et al., 1996) model and the seasonal transient model suffer from over- estimation of discharge from the floodplain aquifer to the San Pedro river, as well as errors in the seasonal transient model's simulation of riparian ET, and seasonal variations in stream conductance. These problems precluded the seasonal transient model from replicating the observed baseflows in the San Pedro river at the Charleston bridge, however, the results of the simulation are thought to be qualitatively indicative of changes in the flow system resulting from the retirement of irrigated agriculture in the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. Possible sources for this problem include replacement of irrigation stresses by the expansion of cones of depression more distant from the river, overestimation of mountain front recharge, poor baseflow estimates and evapotransipration calculations from the stream gages at Charleston and Palominas, and the effects of a recently discovered silt -clay body that may dampen the speed of the rivers response to changes in stress. Additional efforts to re- calibrate the model, taking these areas into account, should provide better simulated baseflow values of the observed data.
Series/Report no.Technical Reports on Hydrology and Water Resources, No. 00-010
SponsorsThis project was funded by, and this report prepared for the Bureau of Land Management. We are very grateful to many individuals whose support was invaluable to the completion of this project. Stan Leake, of the USGS, Frank Putman of the ADWR, Steve Correll, of Hydrosystem, Inc., and many of Dr. Sorooshian's research group at the University of Arizona.
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A COMPARISON OF FAULKNER'S AND RULFO'S TREATMENT OF THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN REALITY AND ILLUSION IN "ABSALOM, ABSALOM!" AND "PEDRO PARAMO".RUKAS, NIJOLE MARIJA. (The University of Arizona., 1982)The aim of this study is not to explain Juan Rulfo in the light of William Faulkner, although the latter's influence among Spanish American writers is unquestionable. Rather, I propose to specifically examine Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! and Rulfo's Pedro Paramo in comparative terms, since both novels are about the conflict between human desire and reality: they deal with longings, particularly those of Thomas Sutpen and Pedro Paramo, which never achieve ultimate satisfaction, in spite of these central characters' overwhelming and obsessive will to power which creates Sutpen's Hundred and Comala in the image of each protagonist. Each character tries to assume the omnipotence of a god, once his unthinking participation in the existential reality has been destroyed by chance traumatic occurrences. Comparable metamorphic organizing images exist in the two novels: a square and a circle. They represent the protagonists' conception of a protected space/world with an illusory center, born out of desire and representing an ideal which would render meaningful Sutpen's and Paramo's existence. The heart of Sutpen's dream is an heir to continue his dynasty and Paramo is haunted by the idealized Susana whom he claims to be the reason of all his actions. However, the two fabricated worlds are eventually revealed as fictions, and the centers of both structures collapse into the dust of reality. What remains of the two protagonists is only a motionless marble tombstone in a decayed plantation and a crumbled heap of stones in a moribund village. The inheritors of the two worlds are a mulatto idiot and an incestuous couple. After commenting on some critical opinions of the two novels and their protagonists, I trace the conception, the workings, and the collapse, with its consequences, of the two worlds of desire. I follow an approximately chronologial order, although the two texts are anything but chronological.
NEMO Watershed-Based Plan San Pedro WatershedAmesbury, Steven S.; Burnett, Jonathan; Chen, Hui; Guertin, D. Phillip; Johns, Renee; Krecek, Tasha; Spouse, Terry; Summerset, James C.; Uhlman, Kristine; Westfall, Erin (2010-02)
Late Quaternary Paleoenvironments and Archaeology in the San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, U.S.A.Ballenger, Jesse Albertice MacPendleton (The University of Arizona., 2010)One of the most challenging questions surrounding the Clovis colonization of North America is the character and structure of terminal Pleistocene environments, including floral and faunal communities. A series of cores in the mouth of an arroyo revealed late Pleistocene - early Holocene wetland sediments buried 12 meters below surface, at the approximate elevation of the entrenched modern San Pedro River channel. A suite of ¹⁴C dates show that wetlands of the ancestral San Pedro River occupied portions of the inner valley coincident with the Younger Dryas (13,000 - 11,500 cal yr BP) and the early Holocene (10,000 - 9,500 cal yr BP). A lack of Sporormiella fungal spores indicates that mammoths were rare or absent when Clovis populations appeared in the valley around 12,800 cal yr BP. Palynological and stable carbon isotope analyses show that C₄ grasses increased at 9,940 cal yr BP, just prior to frequent burning after 9,510 cal yr BP and rapid erosion at 9,470 cal yr BP. δ ¹⁸O values from soil carbonates vary but do not record a systematic shift in precipitation source or temperature during the late Pleistocene - early Holocene transition. The establishment of C₄ grasslands in the inner valley correlates with widespread changes in the Chihuahuan Desert flora around 10,000 cal yr BP. A relatively dense accumulation of Clovis-mammoth associations in San Pedro Basin contrasts the lack of megaherbivores indicated at Palominas Arroyo. The upper San Pedro Basin of southeastern Arizona contains a minimum of four Clovis-mammoth associations, making it possibly one of the densest concentrations of human-proboscidean sites on earth in terms of time and space. I use the Younger Dryas-age stratum known as the "black mat" to compare the Clovis-age archaeofaunal record of the basin to its paleontological background in order to measure the level of human predation that created this remarkable record. This analysis indicates that Clovis people were affecting the last mammoth populations to a significant degree, a situation expected only in the presence of abundant mammoths. I argue that this condition was met in the San Pedro Basin, possibly in the form of a terminal Pleistocene refugium. If the refuge hypothesis indeed explains mammoth predation, then Clovis-mammoth associations should occur as clusters as they do in the San Pedro Basin rather than as isolates as they are known to occur elsewhere. The use of radiocarbon frequency distributions to reconstruct prehistoric human and animal populations must account for taphonomic loss and other factors that affect the archaeological and paleontological records. Surovell et al. (Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 36, 1715–1724) have recently proposed a volcanic-based correction factor for removing "taphonomic bias" from temporal frequency distributions. Analysis of 718 radiocarbon dates sampled from the alluvium of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers and their tributaries in southeastern Arizona shows that discovery and scientific biases play an equally important role in the creation of radiocarbon frequency distributions, and that "taphonomic bias" has not been systematic through time. The latter principle is further demonstrated using a sample of 123 Pliocene to Clovis-age proboscideans from the San Pedro Valley. We propose an alternative model that is based on the nature of the stratigraphic record, with discovery bias, scientific bias, taphonomic loss, and the shape of the calibration curve all operating to influence the temporal frequency distribution of prehistoric phenomena.