The Effect of Function-based Supports on Treatment Integrity of Function-based Interventions
AuthorMontano, Corey Joanna
KeywordsFunction Based Assessment
Function Based Intervention
Function Based Supports
Positive Behavior Supports
Behavior Intervention Plan
AdvisorLiaupsin, Carl J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractFunction-based assessments and interventions are routinely used in school settings as an effective method to address problem behaviors that impede the learning of the student or others. When function-based interventions are not successful, it is often due to problems with treatment integrity (TI). Using an ABCBC single subject design, this study examined whether function-based teacher supports could improve TI. The results demonstrated that the function-based supports provided to the teacher resulted in higher levels of TI and improvements in student behavioral outcomes. Using function-based intervention concepts to develop teacher intervention support, limitations to the study, and directions for future research are discussed.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Variation of Functional Traits Across Space and Time: Assessing the Roles of Succession and Temperature on Plant and Microbial Functional Traits to Understand Biodiversity GradientsBuzzard, Vanessa (The University of Arizona., 2017)Traditionally, the study of biodiversity has focused on quantifying patterns of species diversity, or species richness, by simply counting the number of species across environmental gradients. This approach has been fundamental to ecological investigations and thinking with regards to identifying patterns of biodiversity. Although species diversity is the most commonly used dimension of biodiversity, species diversity alone does not provide a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity gradients. By also quantifying the genetic and phylogenetic diversity of a population, community or ecosystem, ecologists can become more informed on the relationships organisms have with one another, as well as their potential to adapt to changes in their environment. While each of these approaches provides methods for characterizing biodiversity, they do not offer direct insight into what species do, how they function, or how they will respond to changes in their environment. Functional, or trait-based ecology, provides an informative alternative to species-centric approaches that seeks to understand patterns of biodiversity in terms of functional traits. Functional traits capture fundamental tradeoffs in life history strategies that can be used to determine species ecological roles and can be used to scale from organisms to ecosystems to ask broad ecological questions. The overarching goal of my dissertation is to add additional links to trait-based ecology by identifying potential sources of trait variation across different spatial and temporal gradients between varying levels of biological organization. By assessing variation across spatial-temporal scales, I tested two prominent assumptions of trait-based ecology. First, I tested the trait-environment assumption wherein traits affect ecosystem processes. Therefore, there should be a predictable relationship between traits, their environment, and ecosystem function across large ecological gradients and between broad taxonomic groups. Second, I tested the assumption that interspecific trait variation exceeds intraspecific trait variation; thus, the species mean trait value captures much of the variation for a given trait. My study systems include the latitudinal diversity gradient of North America, forests of varying successional age in the tropical dry forests of Costa Rica, and a subalpine meadow of Colorado. First, we collected leaf trait data and soil microbial data at six sites across the latitudinal diversity gradient to test a central hypothesis of trait-based ecology, primarily that shifts in plant traits associated with decomposition and nutrient availability ramify to influence microbial functioning. We found that changes in plant traits not only reflect nutrient limitation across broad ecological gradients, but also have important regional effects on biogeochemical processes, microclimates, and energy fluxes that influence microbial diversity. Furthermore, changes in plant function correspond to changes in bacterial functional traits related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling, although only fungal functional traits related to nitrogen cycling change across the gradient. Our results represent one of the first comparisons of functional diversity within and across bacterial, fungal, and plant communities across a latitudinal gradient. Next, we collected leaf functional trait and abiotic data across a 110-year chronosequence within a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We focused on six leaf functional traits for woody plants within 14 plots that have varying times since disturbance in the tropical dry forests of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. When we compare species composition and community function, we find that older tropical dry forest communities differ significantly from younger forests in species composition, above ground biomass, and functional traits. Species in younger forests have traits better adapted to hotter temperatures and increased drought. For example, young forests are characterized by thicker leaves with higher water use efficiency. In contrast, older forests have thinner broader leaves more susceptible to desiccation. Interestingly, in contrast to expectations, variation in these functional traits does not generally change through succession. This means that the different species within each community are converging on similar functional strategies. Our results also suggest that regenerating tropical dry forests are resilient and can be restored within a human lifetime. Finally, we evaluated patterns of trait variation within and between three years to understand the widely-ignored source of temporal variation associated with seasonality and test the assumption that interspecific trait variation exceeds intraspecific variation and the species means account for the overall variation of a trait. To do this, we collected leaf data from eight species at a local site in Colorado throughout the growing season, over three years, as well as extracted data from a global database and made comparisons to assess sources trait variation. We found that, although the timing of collection influences one’s ability to capture fine-scale processes occurring on short time scales, collecting data locally throughout the growing season and across multiple years does not significantly influence species ranking. However, species ranking is not conserved for comparisons between local and global databases. This suggests that extra care should be taken when applying global data for species-specific studies and that ‘snap-shot’ sampling designs may over- or underestimate community trait distributions, reducing predictability. Overall, this body of work extends beyond understanding patterns of species diversity through the inclusion of species function. It contributes to our understanding of variation in biodiversity across broad ecological gradients and between diverse taxonomic groups, how communities assemble via functional traits, and the importance of temporal variation on functional traits for detecting fine-scale patterns.
Relativistic corrections for non-Born-Oppenheimer molecular wave functions expanded in terms of complex explicitly correlated Gaussian functionsBubin, Sergiy; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017-06-26)In our previous work S. Bubin et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 122 (2016), it was established that complex explicitly correlated one-center all-particle Gaussian functions (CECGs) provide effective basis functions for very accurate nonrelativistic molecular non-Born-Oppenheimer calculations. In this work, we advance the molecular CECGs approach further by deriving and implementing algorithms for calculating the leading relativistic corrections within this approach. The algorithms are tested in the calculations of the corrections for all 23 bound pure vibrational states of the HD+ ion.