Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction
AffiliationDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Arizona
School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationMetatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction 2015, 10 (6):e0130745 PLOS ONE
Rights© 2015 Martinson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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AbstractA striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between galland seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.
DescriptionUA Open Access Publishing Fund
NoteOpen access journal
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsWe gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation (www.nsf.gov/) for supporting this research (IOB-062492 to AEA and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship to EOM), as well as the Smithsonian Institute (www.si.edu/ Predoctoral Fellowship to EOM