Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O’odham Students
AuthorDavis, Amy L.
Harvey, Erin M.
Twelker, J. Daniel
Miller, Joseph M.
Leonard-Green, Tina K.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Dept Ophthalmol & Vis Sci
Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth
Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherHINDAWI PUBLISHING CORP
CitationConvergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O’odham Students 2016, 2016:1 Journal of Ophthalmology
JournalJournal of Ophthalmology
RightsCopyright © 2016 Amy L. Davis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractPurpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd-8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00D, moderate: 1.00D to <3.00D, and high: >= 3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 +/- 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute (NIH/NEI Grant) [EY13153]; Research to Prevent Blindness; Walt and Lilly Disney Award for Amblyopia Research