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dc.contributor.authorDavis, Amy L.
dc.contributor.authorHarvey, Erin M.
dc.contributor.authorTwelker, J. Daniel
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Joseph M.
dc.contributor.authorLeonard-Green, Tina K.
dc.contributor.authorCampus, Irene
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-29T00:20:32Z
dc.date.available2016-11-29T00:20:32Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationConvergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O’odham Students 2016, 2016:1 Journal of Ophthalmologyen
dc.identifier.issn2090-004X
dc.identifier.issn2090-0058
dc.identifier.doi10.1155/2016/6963976
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/621430
dc.description.abstractPurpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd-8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00D, moderate: 1.00D to <3.00D, and high: >= 3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 +/- 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute (NIH/NEI Grant) [EY13153]; Research to Prevent Blindness; Walt and Lilly Disney Award for Amblyopia Researchen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherHINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/6963976/en
dc.rightsCopyright © 2016 Amy L. Davis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.titleConvergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O’odham Studentsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Ophthalmol & Vis Scien
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlthen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Coll Opt Scien
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Ophthalmologyen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
refterms.dateFOA2018-09-11T15:51:52Z
html.description.abstractPurpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd-8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00D, moderate: 1.00D to <3.00D, and high: >= 3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 +/- 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.


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