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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractKetosis is a metabolic condition that occurs during heat stress, prolonged exercise, fasting, and in obese and diabetic individuals. The major ketone body, β-OH butyrate, affects cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner through its receptor GPR109a. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of diabetes. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to elevate β-OH butyrate production, and in GPR109a +/+ and -/- mice. To directly assess the response to ketone signaling we gave intraperitoneal injections of the GPR109a agonists niacin (0.8mmol/kg) and β-OH butyrate (5.7mmol/kg) to HMGCS2 knockdown mice over the final 9 hours of a 16 hour fast. Ketogenic deficient mice showed a more robust increase in hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) mRNA than control mice in response to fasting. Accordingly, niacin and β-OH butyrate administration decreased fasting CPT1 mRNA expression in knockdown mice, while fasting knockdown UCP2 mRNA and control HMGCS2 mRNA were lowered by β-OH butyrate. GPR109a knockout did not alter the hepatic response to fasting, although the effect of niacin on fasting HMGCS2 mRNA expression was dependent on GPR109a expression. While the role of GPR109a and how chronic hyperketonemia alters β-OH butyrate signaling require further study, these data suggest that endogenous β-OH butyrate signaling during a fast regulates the transcript levels of hepatic genes directly involved in its own synthesis.
Degree ProgramGraduate College