Mineral Surface-Mediated Transformation of Insensitive Munition Compounds
Insensitive Munitions Compounds
Soil, Water & Environmental Science
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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EmbargoRelease after 19-Aug-2017
AbstractAbiotic transformation of compounds in the natural environment by metal oxides plays a significant a role in contaminant fate and behavior in soil. The ability of birnessite, ferrihydrite and green rust to abiotically transform insensitive munitions compounds (IMCs) parent (2,4 dinitroanisole [DNAN] and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one [NTO]), and daughter products (2-methoxy-5-nitro aniline [MENA], 2,4-diaminoanisole [DAAN]of DNAN; and 5-amino-1, 2, 4-triazol-3-one [ATO] of NTO) was studied in batch reactors under strictly controlled pH and ionic strength. The objectives of the study were to (i) assess the abiotic transformation potential of soluble DNAN, MENA, DAAN, NTO and ATO by birnessite, ferrihydrite and green rust, and (ii) identify inorganic reaction products. The study was carried out at metal oxide solid to IMC solution ratios (SSR) of 0.15, 1.5 and 15 g kg⁻¹ for birnessite and ferrihydrite and 10 g kg⁻¹ for green rust. Aqueous samples were collected at time intervals between 0 to 3 days after the reaction initiation and analyzed using HPLC with UV detection. Results indicated that DNAN was resistant to oxidation by birnessite and ferrihydrite at given solid to solution ratios. MENA was susceptible to rapid oxidation by birnessite (first order rate constant, 𝑘=1.36 h⁻¹ at 15 g kg⁻¹ SSR). The nitro groups from MENA largely mineralized to nitrite (NO₂⁻). In contrast, ferrihydrite did not oxidize MENA. DAAN was susceptible to oxidation by both birnessite and ferrihydrite, but about a six times higher oxidation rate was observed with birnessite (𝑘=1.18 h⁻¹) as compared to ferrihydrite (𝑘=0.22 h⁻¹) at an SSR of 1.5 g kg⁻¹. There was a complete loss of DAAN from solution after 5 min with birnessite at an SSR 15 g kg⁻¹ (𝑘≥90.5 h⁻¹). CO₂ evolution experiments indicate mineralization of 15 and 12 % of carbon associated with MENA and DAAN, respectively; under aerobic conditions with birnessite at an SSR of 15 g kg⁻¹. NTO was resistant to oxidation by birnessite and ferrihydrite at any SSR; however, there was slight initial loss from solution upon reaction with ferrihydrite at 0.15 and 1.5 g kg⁻¹ SSR and complete loss at 15 g kg⁻¹ SSR due to adsorption. ATO was susceptible to oxidation by birnessite and sorption by ferrihydrite. The first order rate constants (𝑘) for ATO with birnessite at 0.15 and 1.5 g kg⁻¹ SSR are 0.04 and 3.03 h⁻¹ respectively. There was complete loss of ATO from solution with birnessite at 15 g kg⁻¹ SSR (𝑘 ≥ 90.2 h⁻¹) within 5 min of reaction. Transformation products analysis revealed urea, CO₂ and N₂ as major reaction products with 44 % urea recovery and recovery of 51.5 % of ATO carbon as CO₂ and 47.8 % of ATO nitrogen as N₂ at 15 g kg⁻¹ SSR. The oxidation of ATO in the presence of birnessite was found to be independent of dissolved O₂. The results indicate that ATO, the major reductive (bio)transformation product of NTO, is readily oxidized by birnessite in soil. NTO was found strongly sorbed to ferrihydrite as compared to that of ATO. The results of the green rust experiment indicate rapid abiotic reduction of parent compounds NTO and DNAN to their reduced aminated daughter products. NTO was generally reductively transformed to 5-amino-1, 2, 4-triazol-3-one (ATO) within 10 min and completely reacted in 20 min. DNAN was rapidly transformed to its reduced daughter products MENA and 4-methoxy-5-nitroaniline (iMENA). The reduction occurred with a distinctive, staggered regioselectivity. Over the first 10 min, the para-nitro group of DNAN was selectively reduced, generating iMENA. Thereafter the ortho-nitro group was preferentially reduced, generating MENA. Both iMENA and MENA were subsequently transformed to the final reduction product DAAN within 1 day. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy data suggested oxidative transformation of green rust to lepidocrocite-like mineral forms, accounting for 94 % of the mineral products in the case of NTO reaction as compared to 62 % in the case of DNAN. The results taken as whole suggest that complete abiotic transformation of IMCs could be achieved by coupled stepwise green rust and birnessite treatments.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Soil, Water & Environmental Science