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dc.contributor.authorSamwald, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorXu, Hong
dc.contributor.authorBlagec, Kathrin
dc.contributor.authorEmpey, Philip E.
dc.contributor.authorMalone, Daniel C.
dc.contributor.authorAhmed, Seid Mussa
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorHofer, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorBoyce, Richard D.
dc.date.accessioned2016-12-21T23:32:38Z
dc.date.available2016-12-21T23:32:38Z
dc.date.issued2016-10-20
dc.identifier.citationIncidence of Exposure of Patients in the United States to Multiple Drugs for Which Pharmacogenomic Guidelines Are Available 2016, 11 (10):e0164972 PLOS ONEen
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0164972
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/621819
dc.description.abstractPre-emptive pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing of a panel of genes may be easier to implement and more cost-effective than reactive pharmacogenomic testing if a sufficient number of medications are covered by a single test and future medication exposure can be anticipated. We analysed the incidence of exposure of individual patients in the United States to multiple drugs for which pharmacogenomic guidelines are available (PGx drugs) within a selected four-year period (2009-2012) in order to identify and quantify the incidence of pharmacotherapy in a nation-wide patient population that could be impacted by pre-emptive PGx testing based on currently available clinical guidelines. In total, 73 024 095 patient records from private insurance, Medicare Supplemental and Medicaid were included. Patients enrolled in Medicare Supplemental age > = 65 or Medicaid age 40-64 had the highest incidence of PGx drug use, with approximately half of the patients receiving at least one PGx drug during the 4 year period and one fourth to one third of patients receiving two or more PGx drugs. These data suggest that exposure to multiple PGx drugs is common and that it may be beneficial to implement wide-scale pre-emptive genomic testing. Future work should therefore concentrate on investigating the cost-effectiveness of multiplexed pre-emptive testing strategies.
dc.description.sponsorshipReagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA [RUF-IMEDSSA_0017]; Austrian Science Fund (FWF) [P25608-N15]; European Union's Horizon research and Innovation programme [668353]; US ational Institute on Aging [K01AG044433]; National Library of Medicine [1R01LM011838-01]; National Center for the Advancing Translation Sciences [KL2TR000146]en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCEen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164972en
dc.rightsThis is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.en
dc.titleIncidence of Exposure of Patients in the United States to Multiple Drugs for Which Pharmacogenomic Guidelines Are Availableen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Coll Pharmen
dc.identifier.journalPLOS ONEen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
refterms.dateFOA2018-08-14T13:54:09Z
html.description.abstractPre-emptive pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing of a panel of genes may be easier to implement and more cost-effective than reactive pharmacogenomic testing if a sufficient number of medications are covered by a single test and future medication exposure can be anticipated. We analysed the incidence of exposure of individual patients in the United States to multiple drugs for which pharmacogenomic guidelines are available (PGx drugs) within a selected four-year period (2009-2012) in order to identify and quantify the incidence of pharmacotherapy in a nation-wide patient population that could be impacted by pre-emptive PGx testing based on currently available clinical guidelines. In total, 73 024 095 patient records from private insurance, Medicare Supplemental and Medicaid were included. Patients enrolled in Medicare Supplemental age > = 65 or Medicaid age 40-64 had the highest incidence of PGx drug use, with approximately half of the patients receiving at least one PGx drug during the 4 year period and one fourth to one third of patients receiving two or more PGx drugs. These data suggest that exposure to multiple PGx drugs is common and that it may be beneficial to implement wide-scale pre-emptive genomic testing. Future work should therefore concentrate on investigating the cost-effectiveness of multiplexed pre-emptive testing strategies.


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