• BLIND EQUALIZATION WITH LDPC CODE: TO QUASIERROR FREE TRANSMISSIONS IN TELEMETRY

      Blanc, Grégory; Skrzypczak, Alexandre; Pierozak, Jean-Guy; ZODIAC AEROSPACE; ZODIAC DATA SYSTEMS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In a telemetry system, it has been frequently proved that multipath channels and transmission noise are the most critical sources of distortion. While equalization allows a strong limitation of the multipath effects, the noise impact can be efficiently reduced if forward error correction is used. This paper proves that the combination of blind equalization and a powerful FEC like LDPC strongly improves bit error rates for the SOQPSK modulation. We also prove that a LDPC code is able to fully correct the residual errors that may persist at the equalizer output. In other terms, the combination of equalization and LDPC code enables quasi-error free transmissions in various channel scenarios that represent the various phases of a telemetry mission.
    • C-BAND TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER OUTPUT FILTER DEVELOPMENT

      DePardo, Dan; University of Kansas, Information and Telecommunication Technology Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Telemetry frequency spectrum reductions and reallocations have prompted DoD test ranges to adapt to operation in less desirable frequency ranges, such as C-Band, posing significant challenges to operational capabilities that are vital to mission success. The design and development of new high performance components and systems is essential to the successful migration to C-Band spectrum allocations. This paper will detail the simulation and prototype test results of an RF output filter tailored for an advanced C-Band telemetry transmitter design.
    • CAPACITY ALLOCATION FOR TELEMETRY LINKS WITH VARIABLE TRANSMISSION RATES

      Fecko, Mariusz; Chang, Kirk; Kim, Heechang; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wong, Larry; O'Connell, Ray; Radke, Mark; Young, Tom; Grace, Thomas; Vencore Labs; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Current IP-based telemetry systems such as iNET perform capacity allocation among multiple radios under the assumption of uniform link rates. This assumption breaks down when adaptive modulation is deployed to vary link rates in response to channel degradation. In particular, many modern radios can increase their transmission rate through adaptive coding. To take advantage of these increased rates, we designed several iNET Link Manager (LM) bandwidth allocation algorithms for the future iNET that implements adaptive coding techniques. These new LM algorithms include both weight-based schemes in which link bandwidth is allocated based on the priority assigned to the links and queues, as well as a greedy algorithm in which link bandwidth is allocated strictly based on link rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of these algorithms using both analytical analysis and test-bed experimentation. Through a rich set of test-cases, we conclude that a weight-based algorithm in which link priority is assigned using the product of link weight and link data rate has the best performance, and hence can be considered for the future iNET LM.
    • A CASE STUDY OF HIGH-VOLUME AUTOMATED TESTING WITHIN THE NASA SPACE NETWORK

      Irvin, Dana; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      The NASA Space Network (SN), which consists of the geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation and its associated ground elements, is a critical national space asset that provides near-continuous, high-bandwidth telemetry, command, and communications services for numerous spacecraft and launch vehicles. SN sustainment activities frequently involve testing of the numerous interfaces within the SN ground segment. To reduce the cost and complexity of such testing, NASA commissioned the development of the External Bearer Interface Test Set (XBIT), which enables ground interface verification using a high-volume test automation framework. This paper considers the use of the XBIT as a case study of automated ground segment verification and validation. The paper discusses the trade-offs between automated, semiautomated, and interactive ground interface testing and presents comparative test execution metrics to quantify the relative efficiency of these approaches.
    • CMA BLIND EQUALIZER FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Xingwen, Ding; Wantao, Zhai; Hongyu, Chang; Ming, Chen; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In aeronautical telemetry, the multipath interference usually causes significant performance degradation. As the bit rate of telemetry systems increases, the impairments of multipath interference are more serious. The constant modulus algorithm (CMA) blind equalizer is effective to mitigate the impairments of multipath interference. The CMA adapts the equalizer coefficients to minimize the deviation of the signal envelope from a constant level. This paper presents the performances of the CMA blind equalizer applied for PCM-FM, PCM-BPSK, SOQPSK-TG and ARTM CPM in aeronautical telemetry.
    • DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING PROCESSOR FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING APPLICATIONS

      Peterson, Krystal; Richter, Samuel; Schafer, Adam; Grant, Steve; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Many signal processing, data analysis and graphical user interface algorithms are computationally intensive. This paper investigates a method of off-loading some of the calculations to remotely located processors. Inexpensive, commercial off the shelf processors are used to perform operations such as fast Fourier transforms and other numerically intensive algorithms. The data is passed to the processors, and results collected, using conventional network interfaces such as TCP/IP. This allows the processors to be located at any location, and also allows potentially large caches of processors to be shared between multiple applications.
    • ENERGY EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE SECTOR-BASED USER CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR CELLULAR NETWORK

      Astatke, Yacob; Moazzami, Farzad; Woldegebreal, Dereje H.; Kassa, Hailu Belay; Aredo, Shenko Chura; Menta, Estifanos Yohannes; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Hawassa University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Technology; Addis Ababa University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In this paper, we propose an adaptive and multi-sector-based user clustering algorithm which increases energy efficiency in a cellular network. Adaptive sectoring with dynamically changing sector angles is illustrated with a number of randomly distributed mobile stations. Transmitted power is equally shared by sectors before adaptive user clustering. The sector angles vary from 30 to 360 degrees by merging neighboring sectors and a sector is switched off till the user density exceeds a threshold (Td). The Td value is computed from the total number of users that the cell can accommodate over the area of the cell. The sectors with less than Td density exhibits transmit power which approaches to zero or sleeping state and so that the cumulative power is saved. Simulation results show that an average of 45% to 50% energy can be saved in 10 iterations.
    • EVALUATION OF SPECTRAL Vs ENERGY EFFICIENCY TRADEOFF CONSIDERING TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY IN CELLULAR NETWORKS

      Astatke, Yacob; Moazzami, Farzad; Woldegebreal, Dereje H.; Kassa, Hailu Belay; Engda, Tewelgn Kebede; Menta, Estifanos Yohannes; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Hawassa University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Addis Ababa University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Spectral efficiency (SE), energy efficiency (EE), and transmission reliability are basic parameters to measure the performance of a cellular network. In this paper, spectral efficiency and energy efficiency tradeoff is considered keeping in mind the transmission reliability, where all the three are function of signal to noise ratio (SNR). SNR, in turn is a function of constellation size (or the number of bits per symbol) and data rate. Then, we propose a new power model which is as function of this SNR. Based on the power model, SE-EE trade-off function is evaluated taking transmission reliability in to consideration. Results confirmed that increasing constellation size results an increase in SNR and leads to a significant increase in energy efficiency without changing the transmit power. To demonstrate the validity of our analysis, channel gain and constellation size are varied keeping transmit power constant. The results also indicate that securing transmission reliability, the EE-SE trade-off is optimized by increasing the constellation size.
    • EXPLORING MESH NETWORKS WITH INET RADIOS

      Newton, Todd A.; Timme, M. Wayne; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) radios provide a two-way telemetry link that interconnects the airborne instrumentation system with ground-based systems. This capability brings the flight test telemetry domain into the realm of the more classic mesh networks in a mobile ad-hoc environment. The underlying radio frequency (RF) communication protocols defined in the iNET standards support a variety of classic networking protocols. The scheduling algorithms between Link Managers and radios can operate as a collision network, like classic Ethernet. This paper describes the communication protocols and scheduling algorithms of the iNET radios, and it provides results of their use in a self-scheduling algorithm such as a classical token ring network.
    • FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSOR SYSTEM FOR MONITORING COMPOSITE AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

      Shengnan, Geng; Xinglai, Wang; Hui, Feng; Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      To investigate strain-sensitive characteristics of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, a minimal sensing system consisting of multiplex FBG sensors and signal demodulating and processing instruments was constructed. FBG sensors were designed with different package structures for respectively sensing strain or temperature parameters, and they returned measurand-dependent wavelengths back to the interrogation system for measurement with high resolution. In this paper, tests were performed on structure samples with step-wise increase of deformations. Both FBG sensing system and strain gages were tested and compared. Experimental work proved that the FBG sensing system had a good level of accuracy in measuring the static response of the tested composite structure. Moreover the additional advantages such as damp proofing, high sampling rates and real-time inspection make the novel system especially appropriate for load monitoring and damage detection of aerospace structures.
    • FINITE BLOCKLENGTH SYMMETRIC INFORMATION RATE OF SOQPSK

      Sahin, Cenk; Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas, Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In this paper we compute a lower bound, namely the dependence testing (DT) bound, on the maximum achievable rates (expressed in bits/channel use) with military standard shaped-offset quadrature phase shift-keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG) schemes over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels under finite code blocklength, probability block error and equiprobable input constraints. The DT bound results for SOQPSK-MIL and SOQPSK-TG are used to lower bound their respective spectral efficiencies (expressed in bits/s/Hz). We simulate a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC) using SOQPSK-MIL as the inner code, and show that it performs within 1:1 dB of the SOQPSK-MIL DT bound for various coding rates. The numerical results also demonstrate the performance loss compared to the channel capacity due to the finite blocklength constraint.
    • FOCUSED AUTOMATED DISCOVERY OF TELEMETRY DEVICE CONSTRAINTS

      Whittington, Austin J.; Youngs, Alexander G.; Harwell, John R.; Moodie, Myron L.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Configuring typical devices in the telemetry community requires the creation of complex, device-specific configuration files. While the grammar of the configuration files is vendor neutral, the device specific details are vendor specific. Thus, a naïve approach to building these files is to construct a file, test it against a device, and then iterate. The specification sheets (and other documents) for the device can serve as a guide, but the details of flight test configuration possibilities are immense and, in this community, typically not fully documented. This paper describes a process of creating a set of general rules describing characteristics of a configuration file and using those rules to discover the configuration constraints of telemetry devices automatically. The discovered constraints posed by a particular vendor’s device can then be quickly formed into a correct-by-construction constraint-based grammar for use in other systems.
    • Frequency Partition Techniques of FMCW Radar Imaging Systems for MIMO Multi-Static Array Modality

      Lee, Hua; Thornton, Matthew; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      The modalities of many imaging applications have been advancing toward the MIMO format for improved efficiency. This paper presents an approach to the implementation of the MIMO operating modality for FMCW radar imaging systems with multi-element data-acquisition arrays. The unique characteristics of the software-defined step-frequency FMCW imaging systems enable the simple and precise orthogonalization procedure through direct spectral partitioning. This paper includes the description of the data-acquisition hardware of an eighttransceiver radar imaging system, imaging formation algorithms, MIMO implementation, and results of laboratory experiments.
    • FUSION-BASED AND FLICKER-FREE DEFOGGING

      Guo, Jing-Ming; Syue, Jin-Yu; Radzicki, Vincent; Lee, Hua; National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering; University of California, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      Degradation in visibility is often introduced to images captured in poor weather conditions, such as fog or haze. In this paper, a fusion-based transmission estimation method is introduced to adaptively combine two different transmission models. Specifically, the new fusion weighting scheme and the atmospheric light computed from the Gaussian-based dark channel method improves the estimation of the locations of the light sources. To reduce the flickering effect introduced during the process of frame-based dehazing, a flicker-free module is formulated to alleviate the impacts. The system assessments show this approach is capable of superior defogging and dehazing performance, compared to the state-of-the-art methods, both quantitatively and qualitatively
    • HOW TO MAKE A RUGGEDIZED SSD

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      SSDs are now commonplace in all types of computing from consumer laptops to enterprise storage systems. However, most of those SSDs would not survive in environments with extreme temperatures or high shock and vibration such as found in embedded and military systems. The problems in this space are more than just mechanical; they involve all aspects of the design including electrical and even firmware. A combination of all three engineering disciplines is needed to provide a robust ruggedized SSD product.
    • AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR SYNCHRONIZING MULTIPLE TM FILES

      Terrien, Ron; Endress, William; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In a previous paper “Merging Multiple Telemetry Files From Widely Separated Sources For Improved Data Integrity” presented at the 2012 ITC\USA conference, a method for synchronizing TM files at the minor frame level was presented. This paper expands on that work by describing a method for synchronizing the files at the minor frame level faster and at the earliest frame possible using an internal counter. This method is also useful if the minor frames fall out of sync due to large dropouts.
    • AN INITIAL LOOK AT ADJACENT BAND INTERFERENCE BETWEEN AERONAUTICAL MOBILE TELEMETRY AND LONG-TERM EVOLUTION WIRELESS SERVICE

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      With National Telecommunications & Information Administration (NTIA) Advanced Wireless Services (AWS-3) auction of frequencies in the 1695-1710 MHz, 1755-1780MHz, and 2155- 2180MHz bands, users of the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) band from 1755- 1850MHz, known as Upper L-Band, could be greatly affected. This paper takes an initial look at how the 1755-1780MHz band will be used by the cellular carriers and presents some preliminary testing results of adjacent channel (band) interference that could be experienced by AMT users. This paper should be considered as the stepping off point for future interference discussions, required analysis, and further testing.
    • INKJET PRINTED ANTENNAS

      Marcellin, Michael; Xin, Hao; Hoskins, Charles; Zukova, Alisa; Turnblade, Joel; Shi, Yiming; Burrola, Santiago; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      The objective of this design project is to use inkjet printers with conductive ink to print functional antennas. The project is sponsored by the University of Arizona Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The project was completed with a Design of Experiments to determine the best method for printing a working antenna with different printers, inks, substrates, and printing methods. Conductive ink was used with standard inkjet printers to create a twodimensional antenna print, and the final results describe the best method for doing so. This technology is particularly useful because printed antennas may be produced quickly and inexpensively. Some potential applications include creating RFID tags, radio technology, mobile phones, and sensors for aircrafts. The printed antennas are particularly useful for some of these applications due to the size and flexibility of the print.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 52 (2016)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11
    • The Killer App – Combining Embedded Processors, FPGAs and Smart Software

      Cooke, Alan; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2016-11)
      In this paper, the benefits and advantages of combining advanced embedded processing capabilities with an FPGA based approach within a Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) are discussed. The paper begins with a discussion of some of the services and functionality that such a system enables. Basic features such as system discovery, verification, configuration and upgrade are discussed in addition to other value added services such as continuous built in test (CBIT) and embedded real-time parameter quick-look. Finally, the paper discusses some advanced services that could be deployed to these systems such as emerging communication protocols, multimedia connectivity and discovery, and advanced Machine Learning based systems diagnostics.