Berry, M V
Dennis, M R
Andrews, David L
Litchinitser, Natalia M
Bigelow, Nicholas P
Torres, J P
Neely, Tyler W
Stilgoe, Alexander B
White, Andrew G
Willner, Alan E
Weiner, Andrew M
AffiliationCollege of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona
orbital angular momentum
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationRoadmap on structured light 2017, 19 (1):013001 Journal of Optics
JournalJournal of Optics
Rights© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
DescriptionFinal accepted manuscripts of parts 4 and 5 from Roadmap on Structured Light, authored by Masud Mansuripur, College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona.
NotePublished 25 November 2016; 12 month embargo.
VersionFinal accepted manuscript
SponsorsNSF [ECCS-1407620, ECCS-1509578]; AFOSR [FA9550-15-1-0211]; DARPA [W31P40-13-1-0018]
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Optimizing Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Daily Light Integral Combination in a Multi-Level Electrically Lighted Lettuce Production SystemKacira, Murat; Caplan, Brian Akira; Giacomelli, Gene; Cuello, Joel (The University of Arizona., 2018)There are many issues that will make producing sufficient food for the growing global population a difficult task. Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA), integrating environmental control and hydroponic technology, can efficiently produce more food with less inputs. The new production practices of vertical farms have precision environmental control and subsequently more consistent and higher productivity with the advantage of being located almost anywhere, especially closer to population centers. A vertical Farm can be described as a fully indoor production system that uses electrical lamps for photosynthetic lighting and high density crops grown in multiple layers. CEA technology of supplementing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouse applications to compensate for low light levels, maintain plant photosynthesis, and enhance profits is practiced. However, due to the amount of ventilation generally required in greenhouse environments, maintaining CO2 concentrations can be expensive and impractical. The closed configuration of vertical farms can enhance CO2 use efficiency, however, the use of electrical lighting results in a large electrical power requirement. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of daily light integrals (DLI) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would provide savings of electrical power usage and CO2 supplementation while producing a marketable head lettuce (Butterhead, cv. Fairly) product. Experiments were conducted in a 45 m2 environmentally controlled (air temperature, PPF, DLI, CO2, DO, EC and pH) vertical farm research facility with six values of DLI (9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 mol m-2 d-1) and six CO2 concentrations (400, 550, 700, 850, 1000, 1300 ppm), which were maintained constant from transplant through harvest. Plant shoot fresh and dry weights were measured at harvest and compared with resource use accounting of electrical energy for LED lighting, heat pumps for air conditioning, water pumps for nutrient solution circulation, and air pump to maintain dissolved oxygen in the nutrient solution for the roots. It was demonstrated that 1) a linear relationship of increase biomass to increase of DLI existed for all treatments; 2) plants within the 850 ppm CO2 concentration yielded the largest average fresh and dry shoot weights and yields decreased as CO2 was further elevated; 3) the physiological disorder tip burn was more pervasive and appeared sooner for either larger CO2 concentrations and larger DLIs. No tip burn was observed at 400 and 550 ppm CO2 concentrations within any DLI; 4) lettuce grown in lower light intensities had larger physical size dimensions, but were less dense and had less biomass, compared to lettuce grown in higher light intensities which had a smaller physical dimension, but were more dense and thus greater biomass; 5) the metrics for the average overall resource use efficiencies of plant production for fresh weight edible biomass were 69 gfresh kWh-1, 147 gfresh LCO2-1, 20.7 LH2O kgfresh-1 y-1 , and 86.0 kgfresh m-2 y-1; 6) the potential electrical savings from changing the DLI (mol m-2 d-1)/CO2 (ppm) combination from 17/400 to 13/850 in the small scale research facility, to which this study was conducted, is $59 per harvest and $762 for the year (14.4% savings). Larger commercial vertical farm operations lowering the DLI and increasing CO2 concentrations could have a much greater electrical savings potential.
Effects of Intraocular Lens Opacification on Light Scatter, Stray Light, and Overall Optical Quality/PerformanceWerner, Liliana; Stover, John C.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Das, Kamal K.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci; John A. Moran Eye Center University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States; The Scatter Works, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, United States; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, United States (ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC, 2016-06-17)PURPOSE. To evaluate light scatter and stray light in intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted because of postoperative opacification (13 calcified hydrophilic acrylic, 1 calcified silicone, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] lenses with snowflake degeneration), as well as effect of opacification on other optical quality/performance indicators, in comparison with controls. METHODS. The Complete Angle Scatter Instrument (CASI) scatterometer was used to measure the forward light scattering (FLS) of the IOLs, and the stray light values at various angles were calculated from the measured FLS. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was obtained with an optical bench, and a Badal optometer was used to obtain letter chart images through the lenses. Back light scatter and light transmittance were also measured. RESULTS. Average stray light values (Log (s)) at a scattered angle of 100 were 1.79 +/- 0.37 for hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (controls 0.36 +/- 0.05), 1.53 for the silicone lens (control 0.41), and 1.62 +/- 0.46 for PMMA IOLs (control 0.25). Stray light was significantly higher for explanted opacified lenses (N = 18) in comparison with controls (N = 7; two-tail P < 0.001 at 100). Modulation transfer function and Badal image contrast were drastically reduced in lenses with calcification and snowflake degeneration. CONCLUSIONS. Different studies described the impact of stray light in human vision, with serious hindrance above 1.47 Log (s). Lenses explanted from patients because of clinically significant opacification are associated with a considerable increase in light scatter and stray light, as well as with a decline of other optical quality/performance indicators.
Characterization of organic/organic' and organic/inorganic heterojunctions and their light-absorbing and light-emitting propertiesArmstrong, Neal R.; Anderson, Michele Lynn, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1997)Increasing the efficiency and durability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has attracted attention recently due to their prospective wide-spread use as flat-panel displays. The performance and efficiency of OLEDs is understood to be critically dependent on the quality of the device heterojunctions, and on matching the ionization potentials (IP) and the electron affinities (EA) of the luminescent material (LM) with those of the hole (HTA) and electron (ETA) transport agents, respectively. The color and bandwidth of OLED emission color is thought to reflect the packing of the molecules in the luminescent layer. Finally, materials stability under OLED operating conditions is a significant concern. LM, HTA, and ETA thin films were grown in ultra-high vacuum using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. Thin film structure was determined in situ using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ using UV-Vis spectroscopy. LM, HTA, and ETA occupied frontier orbitals (IP) were characterized by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and their unoccupied frontier orbitals (EA) estimated from UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies in combination with the UPS results. The stability of the molecules toward vacuum deposition was verified by compositional analysis of thin film X-ray photoelectron spectra. The stability of these materials toward redox processes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in nonaqueous media. Electrochemical data provide a more accurate estimation of the EA since the energetics for addition of an electron to a neutral molecule can be probed directly. The energetic barriers to charge injection into each layer of the device has been correlated to OLED turn-on voltage, indicating that these measurements may be used to screen potential combinations of materials for OLEDs. The chemical reversibility of LM voltammetry appears to limit the performance and lifetimes of solid-state OLEDs due to degradation of the organic layers. The role of oxygen as an electron trap in OLEDs has also been verified electrochemically. Finally, a more accurate determination of the offset of the occupied energy levels at the interface between two organic layers has been achieved via in situ monitoring of the UPS spectrum during heterojunction formation.