• The Definition, Visibility, and Significance of Redshift-Magnitude Bands

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1973-06)
      Redshift- magnitude bands as they occur in the Coma cluster are formally defined and the original bands as observed in 1972 are shown to have a likelihood of random occurance of only 0.005 independent of their direction. The properties of the Coma bands are transformed to m_p magnitudes and used to show that an independent sample of outlying Coma galaxies shows strong band related characteristics. The proper- ties of the Coma bands are then used to predict band properties for the A2199 cluster. The resultant power spectrum test of a preliminary A2199 sample shows agreement which has a random likelihood of occurance of only 0.001. The A2199 cluster also shows a band related morphological separation as in Coma.
    • Detectability of Distant Galaxies During a Hypothetical Bright Phase and the Associated Ionization of Intergalactic Matter

      Weymann, R. J.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1966-11)
      Simple models for bright, helium producing phases in the lives of massive galaxies are used to investigate the distance out to which they could be seen as individual objects. Roughly speaking, objects radiating at effective temperatures of ..;40,000 o could be detected out to redshifts as large as 8 -+12. Such redshifts correspond to densities at which we might reasonably have expected galaxy condensation to occur, except possibly for the lowest part of the probable range of go-values. Such Objects ought to be bluer than ordinary "nearby" galaxies, and for open cosmological models would be expected to be much more numerous than ordinary galaxies; for closed models the numbers of bright and ordinary galaxies should be comparable. The feasibility of detecting such objects by ground -based measures of their integrated skybrightness in the L and M windows is discussed, and it appears that such a technique would be feasible and superior to direct photographic detection only for relatively low effective temperatures in the 20,000 to 1+0,000 range. The possibility of explaining the lack of general Ljy -c4 absorption in distant WO as due to a high degree of ionization brought about by W radiation from these bright galaxies is investigated. The conclusion is that this mechanism will not usually be adequate -- and when it is adequate, the objects causing the ionization should be detectable -- unless the current mean density of uncondensed gas is very low, of the order of 10 -7 particles /cm3 or less.
    • Detection of Earth Orbiting Objects by IRAS

      Dow, K. L.; Sykes, M. V.; Low, F. J.; Vilas, F.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1989-10)
      A systematic examination of 1836 images of the sky constructed from scans made by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite has resulted in the detection of 466 objects which are shown to be in Earth orbit. Analysis of the spatial and size distribution and thermal properties of these objects, which may include payloads, rocket bodies and debris particles, is being conducted as one step in a feasibility study for space -based debris detection technologies.
    • The Diameter of Open Clusters

      Lynds, B. T.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1967-06)
    • Diffraction Effects in Pulsating Radio Sources

      Hopf, F. A.; Cocke, W. J.; Lubart, N. D.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1975)
      A pulsar radio emission model is developed to explore the effects of diffraction on pulsar beaming. At very low frequencies (y < 10 MHz), we predict an increase of pulse width and the discovery of new pulsars. The pulse width increase would be very difficult to untangle from interstellar scintillation effects. Observation of these diffraction effects would place restrictions on the size and radius of curvature of the emission regions.
    • Discrete States of Redshift and Galaxy Dynamics. I. Internal Motions in Single Galaxies

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1975)
    • Discrete States of Redshift and Galaxy Dynamics. II. Systems of Galaxies

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1976)
      In the first paper in this series, a basic model was developed, for individual galaxies, consisting of two expanding opposed streams of material differing systematically in redshift. I.n this paper, galaxies in pairs and groups are shown to show no evidence of gravitational interaction. Redshift differentials between pairs of galaxies and between galaxies in clusters are found to take on preferred values which are various multiples of a basic 72.5 km s-1. There is also direct evidence that the redshift periodicity phases together between groups to imply that there is also no large scale motion between clusters of galaxies. The various mass discrepancies or peculiarities arising from a dynamical interpretation of differential redshifts are also shown to be of a form that no gravitational interaction and no significant motion requires.
    • Discrete States of Redshift and Galaxy Dynamics. III. Abnormal Galaxies and Stars

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1976)
      The redshift pattern in M82 is shown to be consistent with the multiple redshift concept as are redshift differentials in other active objects. The presence of multiple redshift states and the general lack, therefore, of violent motion appears consistent with all types of galaxies. Within our own Galaxy evidence is examined for effects of multiple redshift effects in stars. Four possibilities are considered; interstellar material, pre main sequence objects, rotation In massive stars, and highly evolved or peculiar stars. All classes show evidence of the predicted redshift periodicity. Stellar rotation in particular, is shown to occur preferentially in steps of 72.5 km s-1. Implications of the correlations are briefly discussed.
    • The Effects of the 35 Day X-Ray Cycle on the Light Curve of HZ Herculis

      Grandi, S. A.; Hintzen, P. M. N. O.; Jensen, E. B.; Tydgren, A. E.; Scott, J. S.; Stickney, P. M.; Whelan, J. A. J.; Worden, S. P.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1974)
      We report extensive photoelectric UBV photometry of the variable star HZ Her, originally undertaken to discover possible correlations between variations in its 1.7 day light curve and the 35 day cycle of the X -ray source Her X -1. Correlations recently reported by other groups are confirmed. These, as well as other features observed, are provisionally analyzed using a model consisting of a primary star, filling its Roche lobe and being illuminated by X -rays. The X -rays are emitted in a beam fixed in a rotating, precessing, neutron star secondary. Additional light is being contributed by material being transferred from the primary to the secondary.
    • Electron-Scattering Line Profiles in Seyfert Galaxy Nuclei

      Weymann, R. J.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1969-07)
    • The Emission Lines in the Vicinity of Hydrogen Alpha in dMe Flare Star Spectra

      Worden, S. P.; Peterson, B. M.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1976)
      High resolution spectral data obtained in the vicinity of hydrogen alpha have been obtained for a number of dMe stars. Centrally reversed Ha emission profiles appear to be a general feature of dMe spectra. Possible mechanisms related to solar phenomena are discussed for forming this type of profile.
    • Energy Distribution in Spectra of Seyfert Galaxies and Quasistellar Sources

      Pacholczyk, A. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1967-05)
    • Evidence for a Non-Doppler Component in Redshifts of Normal Galaxies

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1972-05)
    • Evidence of Tidal Effects in Some Pulsating Stars. I CC Andromedae and Sigma Scorpii

      Fitch, W. S.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1966-10)
      Analyses of the light variation of the 6 Scuti star CC Andromedae and of the radial velocity variation of the ß Canis Majoris star 6 Scorpii, a single -line spectroscopic binary, indicate that the long period modulations exhibited are caused by tidal deformations induced in the hydrogen and /or helium ionization zones of each primary by a faint companion, resulting in surface zonal variations of the amplitude and phase of each primary's normal radial pulsations. The variations in the tide raising potential calculated at the center of the apparent disk of o Scorpii correlate very strongly with the observed variations in the phase zero -point of the fundamental pulsation. It is suggested that all the ß Canis Majoris and 6 Scuti stars exhibiting long period modulation, and probably also the RR Lyrae stars showing a Blazhko effect, do so because of tidal perturbations induced by faint companions.
    • Evolution in Galaxy Nuclei. I. Comparison of the Coma and Virgo Clusters

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1971-03)
      The correlation of nuclear magnitude with redshift in the Coma and Virgo Clusters is discussed. The two clusters are combined in a fitting process to determine a differential distance modulus of 3.47 ±0.05. Hubble velocities of the clusters are found to be 1284 ±45 and 6344 ±70. For a Virgo Cluster distance of 14.8 Mpc the Hubble constant is H = 86.3 ±3, subject to the usual major systematic errors. The effect of the redshift -magnitude correlation on the luminosity functions of the Coma and Virgo Cluster is discussed and can account for observed nonuniformity in the luminosity functions. The observed redshift distribution within clusters is interpreted as a uniform Hubble velocity upon which is superimposed a differential redshift not due to mass center motion. A combination of gravitational redshifts and radial mass motion induced in an evolving nuclear gravitational potential field is suggested to produce the differential redshifts. Galaxies are viewed as expanding systems evolving from dense cores with the redshift -magnitude correlation representing a form of evolutionary track. Clusters as a whole can be dynamically stable. The outflow of material is a source of inter- galactic bridges, intergalactic stellar haze, and various phenomena observed in galaxy envelopes. The concept of evolving galaxies has major consequences on cosmological models. Age dispersion in clusters and possible evolutionary corrections to galaxy redshifts and total luminosities both suggest that a new approach to a steady state concept is possible.
    • Fine Structure Within the Redshift-Magnitude Correlation for Galaxies : Proceedings of the 58th IAU Symposium (1973)

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1973-08-01)
      Previous work on the redshift- magnitude banding correlation is briefly reviewed. New tests of the concept are applied successfully to a second cluster (A2199) and the outer portions of the Coma cluster. Using more than 200 redshifts in Coma, Perseus, and A2199 the presence of a distinct band - related- periodicity in redshift is indicated. Finally, a new sample of accurate redshifts of bright Coma galaxies on a single band is presented, which shows a strong redshift periodicity of 220 km sec -1. An upper limit of 20 km sec -1 is placed on the internal Doppler component of motion in the Coma cluster. Redshift- magnitude bands are, therefore, now recognized to consist of discrete "spin states" organized into "spin groups" which show strong mor- phological associations. Bands are probably in turn organized into band systems. The individual spin states are suggested to represent distinct configurations of matter at the nuclear or fundamental particle structure level. Transitions between states in a time systematic sense of decreasing redshift (increasing internal binding) is suggested to occur in galaxy nuclei. Energy released in such transitions is suggested as the driving energy in radio sources and related objects.
    • Flattening of the Galactic Spheroid

      White, S. D. M.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1988-10)
    • G 240-72 -- A New Magnetic White Dwarf with Unusual Polarization

      Angel, J. R. P; Hintzen, P. M. N. O.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Martin, P. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1974)
      GD 240 72 ( =LP44 -113), a DC white dwarf, is found to show elliptical polarization. There is no evidence of variability. The circular component, typically 0.5 %,changes sign with wavelength, being negative in blue light a and positive in red. There is /relatively strong component of linear polarization, 1.4% in blue light.
    • Galaxies, The Redshift, and Gravity

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1974-04)
      When apparent velocities of galaxies in clusters, measured by the red - shift, are correlated against magnitude and morphology, strong non -dynamical correlations emerge. The details of the correlations are used to develop a logical theory for the existance of multiple substates of matter, presumably involving the substructure of fundamental particles. Transitions between substates in a time systematic sense are presumed to occur under the ultimate conditions existant in the cores of black holes in galaxy nuclei. Subsequent separation of states and the interrelations between galaxies require that different substates of matter be non -interactive gravitationally.
    • Galaxy Photometry. I. Techniques

      Tifft, W. G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona), 1973-01)
      Techniques for the derivation of nuclear magnitudes in galaxies are summarized. A new method for rapid estimation of nuclear magnitudes by iris photometry is presented and evaluated. It is concluded that with proper calibration, nuclear magnitudes for galaxies in clusters may be estimated with an uncertainty of about ±0.1 magnitude.