• A Systematic Review of Hyaluronidase‐Assisted Subcutaneous Fluid Administration in Pediatrics and Geriatrics and Its Potential Application in Low Resource Settings

      Wilhelm, Kelsey; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Barcellona, Dawn (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-25)
      The role of enzyme‐assisted subcutaneous fluid administration (EASFA) in treating mild to moderate dehydration in pediatrics, geriatrics, and palliative care has been studied in developed countries. However, it has historically been underutilized due to widely available health care and alternative treatments, namely peripheral intravenous (IV) fluid administration. Fluid infusions in the subcutaneous tissue have a low risk of infection, are easy to administer, and have wide potential use. The use of EASFA in low resource settings to treat those with difficult IV access or where skilled healthcare workers are not as readily available could prove to be a live saving measure in many situations, including the care of patients in remote areas of the world, mass casualty events, or other disasters. Our objective was to determine if EASFA is a valid and appropriate technique to utilize in pediatric and elderly patients, and evaluate if it could be a safe and efficient way to provide fluid resuscitation in low resource settings. For this systematic review MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1950 to December 2015 to recover all available literature relevant to this topic. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using Cohen’s D. This was calculated using the mean difference between intervention and control divided by the pooled standard deviation. For dichotomous outcome of the placement success rate the odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. In reviewing 7 articles using Cohen’s D to compare mean differences to determine effect size, we found that catheter placement success rates and infusion rates were similar between EASFA and peripheral intravenous fluid administration. Additionally, it was found that the odds of correct initial needle placement was 7.19 times higher in EASFA versus intravenous administration. EASFA is a comparable alternative to intravenous fluid administration when delivering fluids to pediatric and elderly patients with mild to moderate dehydration. While infusion rates and total volume of fluids administered were similar, the high rate of success with placement of the subcutaneous catheter proves it to be more useful in some situations. Venous cannulation is difficult, even for a trained healthcare provider, and the ease of placement of subcutaneous catheters makes training lay people to administer subcutaneous fluids a possibility. Additionally, this type of fluid administration may lead to less psychological trauma to a child from multiple needle sticks, while still achieving a similar outcome of effective volume replacement. Based on the results of this study, further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing EASFA in low resource settings.