• Retrospective Analysis of Injuries Sustained In Vehicle Front‐ and Back‐Overs in a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center

      Bendall, William Bryson; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; van Leeuwen, Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-26)
      Motor vehicle accidents involving pedestrians are some of the most common and lethal forms of injury for children in the United States. Among younger children, a common mechanism of action for severe trauma is when a vehicle runs over the child in a forward or backward motion at low speed resulting in a blunt crush injury. This typically occurs in non‐traffic settings including driveways, sidewalks, and roadways. Such incidents have been referred to in many different ways in the literature but for the purposes of this paper will be referred to as low speed vehicle run‐overs. This is a retrospective chart review carried out at Phoenix Children’s Hospital in affiliation with the University of Arizona College of Medicine‐Phoenix that categorizes and examines the injuries sustained by patients involved in low speed vehicle runovers occurring between December 2007 and August 2013. Fifty‐five pediatric patients were included with a median age of 24 months and 6 of these patients were fatally injured. Internal injuries were common overall and significantly more common in children ≤24months. Over half of the cohort sustained fractures, with a 24% incidence of skull fractures. All fatalities were the result of traumatic brain injury. Twenty percent of victims required operative intervention. It was concluded that the severity of these types of incidents varies from minimal to life threatening and best care requires close and thorough evaluation by the trauma and emergency department teams.
    • Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Clinical Outcomes of Fractures Fixed with the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Intramedullary Nail

      Sonenthal, Nechama; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; McLaren, Alex (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-18)
      The (Surgical Implant Generation Network) SIGN Intramedullary (IM) nail is designed to fix long bone fractures without using a costly C‐arm imaging device. It is distributed for free to countries in need, allowing for elevation of care from the standard, lengthy traction treatment in those countries to clinically superior IM nailing. This paper compares the clinical outcomes of the SIGN IM nail to those of the IM nails used in developed countries with use of a C‐arm. The terms “Surgical Implant Generation Network” and “union” were searched in four databases. Primary studies of SIGN IM nails were included and their outcomes, including union rate, time to union, and complications, were recorded and compared to historical data of IM nails used in developed countries. Overall, there is a similar union rate in bones fixed with SIGN IM nails (94.6%) versus bones fixed with IM nails in developed countries (92.3%) (p = 0.009, OR = 1.67), while some bone types (tibia and femur) demonstrated a lower union rate when individually stratified (p = 0.008, OR = 0.26 and p = 0.002 and OR = 0.15, respectively). Mean time to union for all bone types combined showed no significant difference between SIGN IM nails and IM nails used in developed countries (p = 0.26). Complications rates were similar between SIGN IM nails and IM nails used in developed countries. It is possible for the SIGN IM nail to be used to fix long bone fractures in developing countries with outcomes comparable to the IM nail used in developed countries.