Unique Bacteria Community Composition and Co-occurrence in the Milk of Different Ruminants
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biomed Sci
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherNATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
CitationUnique Bacteria Community Composition and Co-occurrence in the Milk of Different Ruminants 2017, 7:40950 Scientific Reports
Rights© The Author(s) 2017. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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AbstractLactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species. The results showed that water deer had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by reindeer, and then goat. Unifrac distance and correspondence analyses revealed that water deer harbored an increased abundance of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., while milk from reindeer and goat was dominated by unclassified bacteria from the family Hyphomicrobiaceae and Bacillus spp., respectively. These data indicate significant differences in the composition of milk-based bacterial communities. The presence of Halomonas spp. in three distinct co-occurrence networks of bacterial interactions revealed both common and unique features in milk niches. These results suggest that the milk of water deer and reindeer harbor unique bacterial communities compared with the goat, which might reflect host microbial adaptation caused by evolution.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNatural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) 
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