Occurance and Formation of Emerging Disinfection Byproducts in Beverages and Over-the-Counter Medications
AuthorYoung, Sheena A.
Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
AdvisorSnyder, Shane A.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractBeyond the expected DBP exposure from drinking water, dermal from bathing, and inhalation, occurrence in food and beverage items can provide an additional occurrence pathway. Synthetic dyes are often added to beverages for aesthetic purposes and many are in the form of a reactive azo (-N=N-) dye or triarylmethane dye, both with a characteristic aromatic ring. The presence of dyes in beverages that are reconstituted with disinfected tap water pose the risk of reactions with the residual chlorine in the drinking water resulting in decolorization, and of greater concern, disinfection byproduct formation. Additionally, oral over-the-counter (OTC) medications contain chemical constituents that when reconstituted with tap water present a risk of DBP formation. Several studies were performed to evaluate the kinetic decay rates of the dyes and drugs in disinfectants, and the effects of water quality conditions on DBP formation. Commercial beverage products and OTC medications were evaluated for the DBPs that were detected in the free chlorine-treated precursor samples. The dye and drugs precursors followed second order kinetics, with the fastest rates for brilliant blue and phenylephrine in chlorinated water. The effects of water properties on precursor degradation and DBP formation was complex due to the influence of characteristics of precursor molecules. The cytotoxic and anti-estrogenic responses were measured in the dye and drug precursors and their respective beverages and OTC medications, to determine potential links. Mio Energy showed estrogenic character and Alka Seltzer induced an anti-estrogenic and cytotoxic response, however there were no clear linkages between the beverage/ medication and their respective dye and drug precursors.
Degree ProgramGraduate College