Physical Activity Modifies the Association between Dietary Protein and Lean Mass of Postmenopausal Women
AuthorMartinez, Jessica A.
Wertheim, Betsy C.
Thomson, Cynthia A.
Bea, Jennifer W.
Thompson, Patricia A.
AffiliationDepartment of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona
University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona
Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona
Department of Medicine, and assistant research scientist, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
CitationPhysical Activity Modifies the Association between Dietary Protein and Lean Mass of Postmenopausal Women 2017, 117 (2):192 Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Rights© 2017 by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
AbstractBackground Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. Objective Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. Participants/setting Participants were postmenopausal women from the Womens Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298). Main outcome measures Our study measured percent lean mass, percent fat mass, and lean body mass index. Statistical analyses performed Linear regression models adjusted for scanner serial number, age, calibrated energy intake, race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and recreational physical activity were used to determine the relationship between protein intake and body composition measures. Likelihood ratio tests and stratified analysis were used to investigate physical activity and body mass index as potential effect modifiers. Results Biomarker-calibrated protein intake was positively associated with percent lean mass; women in the highest protein quintile had 6.3 percentage points higher lean mass than the lowest quintile (P<0.001). This difference rose to 8.5 percentage points for physically active women in the highest protein quintile (P-interaction=0.023). Percent fat mass and lean body mass index were both inversely related to protein intake (both P<0.001). Physical activity further reduced percent fat mass (P-interaction=0.022) and lean body mass index (P-interaction=0.011). Leucine intake was associated with lean mass, as were branched chain amino acids combined (both P<0.001), but not independent of total protein. All associations were observed for normal-weight, overweight, and obese women. Conclusions Protein consumption up to 2.02 g/kg body weight daily is positively associated with lean mass in postmenopausal women. Importantly, those that also engage in physical activity have the highest lean mass across body mass index categories.
Note12 month embargo; Available online 30 November 2016
VersionFinal accepted manuscript
SponsorsNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health; US Department of Health and Human Services [HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, HHSN271201100004C]; Susan G. Komen [CCR14299136]