The Investigation of the Environmental Fate and Transport of 2,4- dinitroanisole(DNAN) in Soils
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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EmbargoRelease after 20-Feb-2018
AbstractNew explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested on military ranges as replacements for 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine (RDX). One of the two compounds being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), which has good detonation characteristics and is one of the main ingredients in a suite of explosive formulations being tested. Data on the fate and transport of DNAN is needed to determine its potential to reach groundwater and be transported off base, a result which could create future contamination problems on military training ranges and trigger regulatory action. In this study, I measured how DNAN in solution interacts with different types of soils from across the United States. I conducted kinetic and equilibrium batch soil adsorption experiments, saturated column experiments with DNAN and dissolution and transport studies of insensitive munitions (IMX-101, IMX -104), which include DNAN, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), nitroguanidine (NQ) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), under steady state and transient conditions. In the rate studies, change in DNAN concentration with time was evaluated using the first order kinetic equation. Solution mass-loss rate coefficients ranged between 0.0002 h-1 and 0.0068 h-1. DNAN was strongly adsorbed by soils with linear adsorption coefficients ranging between 0.6 and 6.3 L kg-1, and Freundlich coefficients between 1.3 and 34 mg1-n Ln kg-1. Both linear and Freundlich adsorption coefficients were positively correlated with the amount of organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the soil. In saturated miscible-displacement experiments, it was shown that under flow conditions DNAN transforms readily with formation of amino transformation products, 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) and 4-amino-2-nitroanisole (4-ANAN). Dissolution miscible-displacement experiments demonstrated that insensitive munition compounds dissolved in order of aqueous solubility as indicated by earlier lab and outdoor dissolution studies. The sorption of NTO and NQ was low, while RDX, HMX, and DNAN all adsorbed to the soils. DNAN transformed in soils with formation of amino-reduction products, 2- ANAN and 4-ANAN. Adsorption parameters determined by HYDRUS-1D generally agreed with batch and column study adsorption coefficients for pure NTO and DNAN. The magnitudes of retardation and transformation observed in these studies result in significant attenuation potential for DNAN in soils, which would reduce risk of groundwater contamination.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Soil, Water & Environmental Science