AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
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AbstractWe present new optical and radio spectroscopic observations of the remarkable galaxy Malin 1. This galaxy has unique features that include an extremely low surface brightness disk with an enormous mass of neutral hydrogen, and a low luminosity Seyfert nucleus. Malin 1 is exceptional in its values of MHO, LB, and MHI /Ln, and modest in its surface mass density of gas and stars. Spirals with large Min /LB tend to have low mean column densities of HI, and are close to the threshold for star formation due to instabilities in a rotating gas disk. In these terms, Malin 1 has a disk with extremely inefficient star formation. The bulge spectrum is dominated by the absorption features of an old, metal rich stellar population, although there is some evidence for hot (young) stars. The emission line excitations and widths in the nucleus are typical of a Seyfert galaxy; but Malin 1 is in the lowest 5% of the luminosity function of Seyferts, despite a copious fuel supply. Malin 1 is in a low density region of the universe. We propose it as an unevolving disk galaxy, where the surface mass density is so low that the chemical composition and mass fraction in gas change very slowly over a Hubble time. Its properties are similar to those of the damped Lyman -a absorption systems seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars. We emphasize that there are strong observational selection effects against finding gas -rich galaxies that are both massive and diffuse. Finally, we suggest that large and massive HI disks may have formed as early as z - 2, and remained quiescent to the present day. Subject headings : individual (Malin 1) - galaxies : photometry - galaxies : Seyfert - galaxies : stellar content - radio sources : 21 cm radiation - stars : formation
CitationAstrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 341, June 1, 1989, p. 89-104
Series/Report no.Preprints of the Steward Observatory #844
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Planck's dusty GEMS III. A massive lensing galaxy with a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function at z=1.5Canameras, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Kneissl, R.; Limousin, M.; Gavazzi, R.; Scott, D.; Dole, H.; Frye, B.; Koenig, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017-03-24)We study the properties of the foreground galaxy of the Ruby, the brightest gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxy on the sub-millimeter sky as probed by the Planck satellite, and part of our sample of Planck's dusty GEMS. The Ruby consists of an Einstein ring of 1.4" diameter at z = 3.005 observed with ALMA at 0.1" resolution, centered on a faint, red, massive lensing galaxy seen with HST/WFC3, which itself has an exceptionally high redshift, z = 1.525 +/- 0.001, as confirmed with VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy. Here we focus on the properties of the lens and the lensing model obtained with LENSTOOL. The rest-frame optical morphology of this system is strongly dominated by the lens, while the Ruby itself is highly obscured, and contributes less than 10% to the photometry out to the K band. The foreground galaxy has a lensing mass of (3.70 +/- 0.35) x 10(11) M-Theta Magnification factors are between 7 and 38 for individual clumps forming two image families along the Einstein ring. We present a decomposition of the foreground and background sources in the WFC3 images, and stellar population synthesis modeling with a range of star-formation histories for Chabrier and Salpeter initial mass functions (IMFs). Only the stellar mass range obtained with the latter agrees well with the lensing mass. This is consistent with the bottom-heavy IMFs of massive high-redshift galaxies expected from detailed studies of the stellar masses and mass profiles of their low-redshift descendants, and from models of turbulent gas fragmentation. This may be the first direct constraint on the IMF in a lens at z = 1.5, which is not a cluster central galaxy.
Planck’s dusty GEMSCañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N.; Kneissl, R.; Frye, B.; Gavazzi, R.; Koenig, S.; Le Floc’h, E.; Limousin, M.; Oteo, I.; Scott, D.; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017-08-23)We present an analysis of high-resolution ALMA interferometry of CO(4-3) line emission and dust continuum in the "Ruby" (PLCK_G244.8+54.9), a bright, gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 3.0 discovered with the Planck all-sky survey. The Ruby is the brightest of Planck's dusty GEMS, a sample of 11 of the brightest gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies on the extragalactic sub-mm sky. We resolve the high-surface-brightness continuum and CO line emission of the Ruby in several extended clumps along a partial, nearly circular Einstein ring with 1.4 '' diameter around a massive galaxy at z = 1.5. Local star-formation intensities are up to 2000 M-circle dot yr(-1) kpc(-2), amongst the highest observed at high redshift, and clearly in the range of maximal starbursts. Gas-mass surface densities are a few x10(4) M-circle dot pc(-2). The Ruby lies at, and in part even above, the starburst sequence in the Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram, and at the limit expected for star formation that is self-regulated through the kinetic energy injection from radiation pressure, stellar winds, and supernovae. We show that these processes can also inject sufficient kinetic energy and momentum into the gas to explain the turbulent line widths, which are consistent with marginally gravitationally bound molecular clouds embedded in a critically Toomre-stable disk. The star-formation efficiency is in the range 1-10% per free-fall time, consistent with the notion that the pressure balance that sets the local star-formation law in the Milky Way may well be universal out to the highest star-formation intensities. AGN feedback is not necessary to regulate the star formation in the Ruby, in agreement with the absence of a bright AGN component in the infrared and radio regimes.
The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Barkhouser, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blank, Basil; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Carrera, R.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-08-14)The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution (R similar to 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51-1.70 mu m) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design-hardware, field placement, target selection, operations-and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.