AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
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AbstractWe present new optical and radio spectroscopic observations of the remarkable galaxy Malin 1. This galaxy has unique features that include an extremely low surface brightness disk with an enormous mass of neutral hydrogen, and a low luminosity Seyfert nucleus. Malin 1 is exceptional in its values of MHO, LB, and MHI /Ln, and modest in its surface mass density of gas and stars. Spirals with large Min /LB tend to have low mean column densities of HI, and are close to the threshold for star formation due to instabilities in a rotating gas disk. In these terms, Malin 1 has a disk with extremely inefficient star formation. The bulge spectrum is dominated by the absorption features of an old, metal rich stellar population, although there is some evidence for hot (young) stars. The emission line excitations and widths in the nucleus are typical of a Seyfert galaxy; but Malin 1 is in the lowest 5% of the luminosity function of Seyferts, despite a copious fuel supply. Malin 1 is in a low density region of the universe. We propose it as an unevolving disk galaxy, where the surface mass density is so low that the chemical composition and mass fraction in gas change very slowly over a Hubble time. Its properties are similar to those of the damped Lyman -a absorption systems seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars. We emphasize that there are strong observational selection effects against finding gas -rich galaxies that are both massive and diffuse. Finally, we suggest that large and massive HI disks may have formed as early as z - 2, and remained quiescent to the present day. Subject headings : individual (Malin 1) - galaxies : photometry - galaxies : Seyfert - galaxies : stellar content - radio sources : 21 cm radiation - stars : formation
CitationAstrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 341, June 1, 1989, p. 89-104
Series/Report no.Preprints of the Steward Observatory #844
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STELLAR MASS–GAS-PHASE METALLICITY RELATION AT 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 0.7: A POWER LAW WITH INCREASING SCATTER TOWARD THE LOW-MASS REGIMEGuo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Lu, Yu; Forbes, John C.; Rafelski, Marc; Trump, Jonathan R.; Amorín, Ricardo; Barro, Guillermo; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Yesuf, Hassen; Cooper, Michael C.; Dekel, Avishai; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kirby, Evan N.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Lin, Lihwai; Newman, Jeffery A.; Primack, Joel R.; Rosario, David J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-05-11)We present the stellar mass (M-*)-gas-phase metallicity relation (MZR) and its scatter at intermediate redshifts (0.5 <= z <= 0.7) for 1381 field galaxies collected from deep spectroscopic surveys. The star formation rate (SFR) and color at a given M-* of this magnitude-limited (R less than or similar to 24 AB) sample are representative of normal star-forming galaxies. For masses below 10(9) M-circle dot, our sample of 237 galaxies is similar to 10 times larger than those in previous studies beyond the local universe. This huge gain in sample size enables superior constraints on the MZR and its scatter in the low-mass regime. We find a power-law MZR at 10(8) M-circle dot < M-* < 10(11) M-circle dot: 12 + log (O/H) = (5.83 +/- 0.19)+(0.30 +/- 0.02) log (M-*/M-circle dot). At 10(9) M-circle dot < M-* < 10(10.5) M-circle dot, our MZR shows agreement with others measured at similar redshifts in the literature. Our power-law slope is, however, shallower than the extrapolation of the MZRs of others to masses below 10(9) M-circle dot. The SFR dependence of the MZR in our sample is weaker than that found for local galaxies (known as the fundamental metallicity relation). Compared to a variety of theoretical models, the slope of our MZR for low-mass galaxies agrees well with predictions incorporating supernova energy-driven winds. Being robust against currently uncertain metallicity calibrations, the scatter of the MZR serves as a powerful diagnostic of the stochastic history of gas accretion, gas recycling, and star formation of low-mass galaxies. Our major result is that the scatter of our MZR increases as M-* decreases. Our result implies that either the scatter of the baryonic accretion rate (sigma((M) over dot)) or the scatter of the M-*-M-halo relation (sigma(SHMR)) increases as M-* decreases. Moreover, our measure of scatter at z = 0.7 appears consistent with that found for local galaxies. This lack of redshift evolution constrains models of galaxy evolution to have both sigma((M) over dot) and sigma(SHMR) remain unchanged from z = 0.7 to z = 0.
The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Barkhouser, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blank, Basil; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Carrera, Ricardo; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Cunha, Kátia; Epstein, Courtney; Fitzgerald, Greg; Pérez, Ana E. García; Hearty, Fred R.; Henderson, Chuck; Holtzman, Jon A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lam, Charles R.; Lawler, James E.; Maseman, Paul; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nelson, Matthew; Nguyen, Duy Coung; Nidever, David L.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Shetrone, Matthew; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Stolberg, Todd; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Walker, Eric; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Anders, Friedrich; Basu, Sarbani; Beland, Stephane; Blanton, Michael R.; Bovy, Jo; Brownstein, Joel R.; Carlberg, Joleen; Chaplin, William; Chiappini, Cristina; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Feuillet, Diane; Fleming, Scott W.; Galbraith-Frew, Jessica; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. Aníbal; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Gunn, James E.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hayden, Michael R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ivans, Inese; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; O’Connell, Robert W.; Parejko, John K.; Robin, A. C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio; Schultheis, Matthias; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Shane, Neville; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Thompson, Benjamin; Troup, Nicholas W.; Weinberg, David H.; Zamora, Olga; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-08-14)The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution (R similar to 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51-1.70 mu m) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design-hardware, field placement, target selection, operations-and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.
Exploring the dust content of galactic winds with Herschel – II. Nearby dwarf galaxiesMcCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S N; Engelbracht, Chad; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-06)We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 mu m images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically similar to 10-20 per cent of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar discs, but this fraction reaches similar to 60 per cent in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metal-licity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disc by energy inputs from ongoing star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disc by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disc that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 mu m data.